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The author performs a theoretical analysis of the educational experience in philology teachers’ professional training in Germany in the context of solving scientific problem of literary competence development. Internal and external factors of this process have been determined both by socio-political realities, economic, philosophical, cultural, psychological factors, and the dynamics of the literary process in developed countries, content diversity of literary studies, methodological, aesthetic, methodological factors of mastering literature process have been emphasized. Particular attention has been paid to designing strategies for studying modern literature based on Bourdieu’s theory providing a detailed understanding of specific contexts and holistic understanding of the literary field due to metadiscourse analysis. Through the use of empirical data the process of literary field theory establishing in the German literature study has been explained, attention has been focused on reviewing the G. Grass’ latest novel by literary critics under the influence of external and internal factors of literary process development that specifies educational process of literary competence development.
T. A. Kuzmina, N. S. Zvegintsova and T. L. Zharkikh
The Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii, Poljakov, 1881) is an endangered subspecies of wild horses (Equus ferus) native to steppes of Central Asia. In 2015, the Program of Establishing of a Semi-Free Population of the Przewalski’s Horse in the Orenburg Reserve was launched by FGFI “Orenburg Reserves”. The first group of 6 Przewalski’s horses (2 males and 4 females) born in the semi-reserve Le Villaret, France, was transported to the Orenburg Reserve. Th e aim of this work was to investigate the species composition of the intestinal parasite community and to monitor the dynamics of the parasite infection of the newly established Przewalski’s horse population. The level of infection by gastrointestinal parasites within the horses was examined by the McMaster method. Gastrointestinal parasites were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with macrocyclic lactone drug “Univerm” (0.2 % aversectin C, PharmBioMed, Russia). Totally, 20 species of parasites were found: 19 species of nematodes (species of the family Strongylidae and Habronema muscae) and one species of botflies from the genus Gasterophilus. Th e widest species diversity (18 species from 8 genera) was observed in strongylids: 2 species from the subfamily Strongylinae and 16 species from Cyathostominae. Distribution of strongylid species between ten prevalence classes revealed a bimodal structure (“core-satellite” mode) of the strongylid community. Th e results obtained in this study are to be considered as the initial data for the further parasitological monitoring of Przewalski’s horses at the Orenburg State Reserve.
The results of scientific studies dealing with the influence of forest management on carbon dynamics are often controversial. Substituting fossil fuels with wood is not always a climate-friendly solution, and besides, it has often a negative impact on biodiversity. The current paper reviews the literature about the influence of different forest management and timber use options on climate change and brings out the accompanying consequences on biodiversity in temperate and boreal climate zones. The forest’s ability to sequestrate and store carbon can be enlarged by appropriate forest management planning and practices. Generally, for mitigation of climate change, the moderate (not intensive) forest management is most favourable, but intensification of management enhances global warming, since forest carbon storage in tree biomass and soil decreases. The mitigation of climate change is just one of the many roles of forest, and climate policy actions cannot come at the expense of species diversity. The complex studies dealing with several forest goals conclude that high carbon store and biodiversity protection do not contradict each other, but the achievement of maximum economic profit at the same time is not possible. The mitigation of climate change and wildlife protection is most effective when it is first of all the forests with a high biodiversity that are managed less intensively. Concerning climate change, the most negative forest biomass use is wood combustion. It is reasonable to burn only such biomass (cut and industrial residues) which cannot be used for producing goods holding carbon for a long time.
Tomasz Borecki, Bogdan Brzeziecki, Edward Stępień and Roman Wójcik
The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.
The paper points out to the essential steps, as said by the authors, on the way to the improvement of now used forest inventory methods and calls attention to remote sensing technologies such as ortophotomaps and aerial lidar data.
The revisions proposed concern gathering information on: site conditions, species diversity, forest stock range as well as sample size and work scope on sampling areas. At the same time, in view of surveying the dynamics of forest change, there is recommended the use of permanent observation plots, especially in mountainous forests.
Sheharbano Khattak, Tariq Elahi, Laurent Simon, Colleen M. Swanson, Steven J. Murdoch and Ian Goldberg
An increasing number of countries implement Internet censorship at different scales and for a variety of reasons. Several censorship resistance systems (CRSs) have emerged to help bypass such blocks. The diversity of the censor’s attack landscape has led to an arms race, leading to a dramatic speed of evolution of CRSs. The inherent complexity of CRSs and the breadth of work in this area makes it hard to contextualize the censor’s capabilities and censorship resistance strategies. To address these challenges, we conducted a comprehensive survey of CRSs-deployed tools as well as those discussed in academic literature-to systematize censorship resistance systems by their threat model and corresponding defenses. To this end, we first sketch a comprehensive attack model to set out the censor’s capabilities, coupled with discussion on the scope of censorship, and the dynamics that influence the censor’s decision. Next, we present an evaluation framework to systematize censorship resistance systems by their security, privacy, performance and deployability properties, and show how these systems map to the attack model. We do this for each of the functional phases that we identify for censorship resistance systems: communication establishment, which involves distribution and retrieval of information necessary for a client to join the censorship resistance system; and conversation, where actual exchange of information takes place. Our evaluation leads us to identify gaps in the literature, question the assumptions at play, and explore possible mitigations.
In order to determine the benthic macro invertebrates communities role as bioindicators, researchers worldwide carried out analyses into the structure, dynamics and diversity of the different groups as well as into the physical-chemical factors. A total of twenty one species of caddisfly larvae were identified in the study. Numerical abundance, frequency and diversity values recorded for the caddisfly species varied according to the physicalchemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. The physical and chemical parameters monitored in Timiș River water catchment basin have corresponded with the limits of the Ministry of Environment and Water Management (MEWA) Order 161/2006, which states the ecological status of surface bodies of water with, few exceptions being identified.
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Gavrilova, G., Baroniņa, V