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Chanan Gafni

confused notions about particular subjects. See: Moses Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed 1:71. But Maimonides was not the sole medieval Jewish scholar to adopt this stance. A similar approach was taken by Judah Ha-Levi (1075-1141) in his Kuzari and by Joseph Albo (1388-1444) in Sefer Ha-Ikkarim (Book of Principles). Ha-Levi and Albo did not just point out the problematic nature of a written tradition but also emphasized the qualities of oral transmission. Unlike a written document, which is subject to conflicting interpretations, an oral tradition, delivered

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Paul Morris

1 Introduction In The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration , Identity and Islam , Douglas Murray’s new and widely reviewed book, the associate editor of The Spectator writes of Europe’s impending suicide, mainly due to cultural pessimism and the dramatic increase in the numbers of “unassimilating”, largely Muslim, migrants ( Murray, 2017 ). The book is sensational, focussing on Muslim sexual violence and unsubstantiated claims about Muslim attitudes and behaviours, but much more significantly, the author has conflated religion and culture (and

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Hubert Klus, Barbara Boenke-Nimphius and Lutz Müller

Benzpyrene Obtained from Tobacco Tar]; Z. Krebsforsch. 49 (1939) 588–597. 244. Kosak, A.I.: The Composition of Tobacco Smoke; Experientia 10 (1954) 69–71. 245. Lü-Fu-hua: Über die Erzeugung von Krebs durch Tabakteerpinselung beim Kaninchen [On the Production of Carcinomas by Skin Painting Rabbits with Tobacco Tar]; Frankf. Z. Pathol. 46 (1934) 513–522. 246. Sugiura, K.: Observations on Animals Painted with Tobacco Tars; Am. J. Cancer 38 (1940) 41–49. 247. Flory, C.M.: The Production of Tumors by Tobacco Tars; Cancer Res. 1 (1941) 252–276. 248

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Rafał Kobis

Book, whose name would come from the name of the desert. Most of Muhammaďs companions, as well as the Prophet himself, came from one of these two cities. Even the first great dynasty of Caliphs – the Umayyad – were descended from the Arab urban elite of Mecca ( Marsham 2016 : 1–5). Along with the development of the empire created by the Arabs, the role of cities further increased. Cities such as al-Ba srah or al-Kufah in modern Iraq and al-Fustat in Egypt served as military camps from which further conquest was conducted ( Southall 2003 : 212). One of the main

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Urszula Myga-Piątek and Oimahmad Rahmonov

factors, local customs may also be distinguished, such as emphasizing ownership (e.g., with rosebushes of different colors) and traditions accompanying grape harvesting (e.g., special songs sung during harvesting, local legends). Wine-related customs and celebrations stem from pre-Christian times, dating back to ancient Greece (where the cult of wine reached its height with the Dionysia) and ancient Rome (the cult of Bacchus). Grapevine leaves and grapes are present as ornaments in the oldest paintings, drawings, and additionally, in architecture. The influence of non

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A Rodgman and TA Perfetti

, R. Garg, G.A. Long, and C. Hansch: Molecular parameters reported for a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); 58 th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Program Book-let and Abstracts, Vol. 58, Paper No. 43, 2004, p. 47. 235. Matthews, J.E.: An investigation of certain factors affecting the composition of cigarette smoke; Thesis, Pennsylvania State College (1941) pp. 1–77. 236. Matthey, E.: Efficacité du traitement préalable du tabac par un solvent organique, du point de vue de la réduction des