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Open access

Ivan Ristic and Rade D Paravina


Objectives: To compare shade matching skills of color normal males and females.

Material and Methods: A total of 174 dental students of both genders (117 females and 57 males, 20 to 25 years old), with no experience in color matching in dentistry, participated in the study. All recruited students passed the Ishihara color vision test for color deficiency, and matched the colors of eight shade tabs using VITA Linearguide 3D-Master shade guide. Standardized lighting conditions were provided using Rite-Lite (Addent Danbury, CT, USA) hand-held shade matching unit. Color differences between the task tabs and selected tabs were calculated using two CIE color difference formulae and students results were evaluated from 10 (for the best match score) to 1 for the 10th best match score. Means and standard deviations were determined. Student’s t-test was used for result analysis (p = .05).

Results: The mean shade matching scores and standard deviations for male and female students were 5.86 (SD 1.38) and 6.10 (SD 1.36), respectively (p = .266). No statistically significant differences in overall and individual target tab scores by gender were recorded.

Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that gender did not influence color matching quality

Open access

Nayera Е. Hassan, Ahmed El-Kahky, Mona Atteya Hana, Mones М. Abu Shady, Essam M. Galal and Aya Khalil


BACKGROUND: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic endocrine disorders of childhood. Data on growth parameters of diabetic children is scarce.

AIM: To assess growth and body composition in a group of diabetic children.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 427 T1DM children (age 2-10 years) were recruited from Diabetic Paediatric Unit, outpatients' clinic of Abou El-Rish Hospital. Anthropometric and body composition parameters were taken and HbA1c was measured for all subjects.

RESULTS: Highly significant difference was detected between controlled and uncontrolled groups as regard to weight/age z-score, height/age z-score, BMI z-score, triceps skin fold thickness, subscapular skin fold thickness, midupper arm circumference, fat mass, fat %, lean mass, and body water (p < 0.001). All values are higher in the controlled group than in the uncontrolled group. Uncontrolled subjects were significantly more at risk of being underweight and short, with odds ratio of 15.131 and 16.877 and 95% confidence interval 1.972-116.130 and 3.973-71.694 respectively. However, controlled subjects were significantly more at risk of being obese than the uncontrolled with an odds ratio 0.116 and 95% confidence interval 0.045-0.302.

CONCLUSION: Growth was compromised in uncontrolled T1DM children. This is of utmost importance since most of the clinical features are reversible with better glycemic control and appropriate insulin management.

Open access

Sahar A. El-Masry, Nayera E. Hassan, Rokia A. El-Banna and Mohamed S. El Hussieny


BACKGROUND: The relation between fat distribution and bone mass is still being debated in children and adolescents.

AIM: To verify the influence of both visceral and subcutaneous fat on bone mass among Egyptian children and adolescents.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 78 (38 boys and 40 girls) individuals from children (42) and adolescents (36), aged 8-17 years. They were divided into 2 age groups: children group (20 boys and 22 girls) aged 8-12 years and adolescent group (18 boys and 18 girls) aged 13- 17 years. Anthropometric measurements, visceral and subcutaneous fat (measured by ultrasound), body composition, BMD and BMC (Measured by DXA), were attempted.

RESULTS: Among children, significant positive correlations between visceral fat; in males; and subcutaneous fat; in females; with total BMC, BMD and its Z-score were revealed. After exclusion of age effect, the association between visceral fat in females with total BMD and its Z-score and lumbar BMD-Z-score became significant. For adolescents, no correlation was observed between either visceral or subcutaneous fat with any parameter of bone mass.

CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

Open access

Ahmed Mohieldin, Ambalavanan Chidambaram, Ramar Sabapathivinayagam and Waleed Al Busairi

Quantitative Assessment of Postural Stability and Balance Between Persons with Lower Limb Amputation and Normal Subjects by using Dynamic Posturography

Background. The amputation of lower limb constitutes a major handicap which involves a functional and professional incapacity. Balance has been reported to be a better predictor of an individual's engagement in physical, daily, and social activities among persons with amputations.

Aim. To study quantitatively the postural stability between persons with amputation and normal subjects by using dynamic posturography. Also, to determine whether differences in balance confidence exist between persons with amputations due to trauma or vascular causes, as well as between below knee (BK) or above knee (AK) amputations.

Subjects and Methods. Twenty one patients with lower limb amputations who were ambulant with prostheses and 20 age-matched healthy individuals as control group were be randomly selected. The patients with BK and AK amputations due to trauma and vascular causes were included. All subjects were clinically evaluated along with brief neurological examination. The postural stability and balance were studied by using computerized dynamic posturography.

Results. A significant reduction was observed for composite equilibrium score of persons with amputation as compared with control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant reduction was observed for composite equilibrium score of vascular causes as compared with trauma causes in persons with amputation (p < 0.05). However, Non-significant difference was observed for composite equilibrium score in BK amputation as compared with AK amputation (p > 0.05).

Conclusion. Our data suggest that lower limb persons with amputation have low balance confidence compared to normal subjects and the balance is lower among individuals who had amputations due to vascular causes than trauma causes. This may be explained by impairment due to amputation as well as reduction of muscle strength and endurance in residual limb.

Open access

Moushira Erfan Zaki, Mona Mamdouh Hassan, Hafez Mahmoud Bazaraa, Hany Fathy Ahmed and Badr


Background and Aim: Growth retardation is still an important manifestation of children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the growth in relation to nutritional status in Egyptian children with CRF on hemodialysis.

Subjects and Methods: The study included 30 Egyptian children above the age of six years on regular haemodialysis at the Haemodialysis Unit of the Centre of Pediatric Nephrology and Transplantation of Cairo University. Anthropometry, biochemical parameters and dietary intake were measured. Anthropometric measurements were expressed as z - scores.

Results: Data shows that height was the most affected anthropometric parameter. Short stature in CRF is proportionate and body weight is less affected than height. Dietary analysis showed that 76.7 % of patients had recommended dietary allowance of calories. Height z-score showed a significant positive correlation with caloric intake. On the other hand, the protein intake showed a significant positive correlation with blood urea nitrogen and a significant negative correlation with serum bicarbonate.

Conclusions: Nutritional assessment is essential to the management of children with CRF. Anthropometry is a sensitive indicator of the nutritional status. The study recommends avoiding excessive protein intake to prevent metabolic acidosis and accumulation of toxic nitrogen waste products.

Open access

Teodor Garnizov and Vangeliya Atanasova


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide data about the course and outcome of pregnancy in the women with aortic stenosis (AS) with special attention to complications in pregnant with severe AS, which was asymptomatic prior to conception.

METHODS: Eleven pregnant women with different grades of AS were monitored in ambulatory and clinical conditions during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. The Apgar scores of the neonates born by mothers with AS were compared to those of neonates born by healthy mothers, using the variation statistical analysis.

RESULTS: In the group with severe AS, asymptomatic prior to conception, aggravation of the NYHA functional class (FC) with left ventricular heart failure was observed. Pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum period were normal in the group with moderate aortic stenosis and in those with ventricular defects, corrected prior to conception. The sums of the Apgar scores for the whole group did not differ from those for the neonates, born by healthy mothers.

CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there is a need of consensus for the complex of examinations, enabling diagnostic differentiation of pregnant women with severe AS requiring urgent defect correction and, the prognosis of pregnancy in women with asymptomatic severe AS.

Open access

Deborah Shepherd, Tracy Mawson, Claire Stoker, Jean Jalali, Roger Jay, Glynis Cosker and Elizabeta Blagoja Mukaetova-Ladinska


Aim: A survey to address psychiatric morbidity in older adults admitted with hip fracture, involvement of liaison psychiatric services for older adults and evaluate change of level of care.

Methods: Information about mental and physical health prior to and during admission, referrals to Geriatrician or Liaison Old Age Psychiatry (LOAP) team, duration of hospital stay and level of care was collected for 43 consecutive admissions of older adults for hip fracture over 6 months period.

Results: Depression, dementia and delirium were present in 28%, 42% and 23% patients respectively. A pre admission diagnosis of depression was associated with lower Barthel scores on admission, whereas dementia and delirium with lower Barthel scores on both admission and at 48 hours post surgery. Pre admission diagnosis of depression or dementia and the occurrence of delirium did not affect the duration of stay in the orthopaedic ward or alter the level of care after discharge.

Conclusions: There are high rates of psychiatric morbidity in older adults presenting with hip fracture to orthopaedic services. Active involvement of the LOAP team would facilitate their prompt identification and treatment post fracture and improve outcomes for these patients

Open access

Wafaa M. Ezzat, Halla M. Ragab, Nabila Abd El Maksoud, Nour A. Abdulla and Yasser A. Elhosary


We aimed to detect the validity of serum ATX as a diagnostic marker for liver fibrosis. Forty-eight males and 16 females were enrolled in the current study. Their ages ranged from 29-57 years with mean of 45.09, all were chronically HCV infected. Laboratory assessment was done for all subjects in form of complete blood picture; liver function test; lipid profile and serum detection of ATX. Patients were grouped according to the stage of fibrosis into group 1: fibrosis score 0, 1, 2, 3; group 2: fibrosis score: 4, 5, 6.The mean values of ATX in all studied patients with chronic HCV infection was 63.02 ± 36.29 while that of healthy controls was 65.31 ± 12.24 without any significant difference. Surprisingly, mean values of ATX were higher among patients with group 1 but it did not reach the significant level. In each group of them, the differences between mean values of ATX among different grades of liver fibrosis were insignificant. It was also noticed that the mean values of ATX were higher among men than in women .It was concluded that Autotoxin might not be used as a useful diagnostic marker for liver fibrosis in Egyptian chronic HCV patients.

Open access

Cornelia Oanta, Liliana Pasarin, Irina Ursarescu, Alexandra Martu and Silvia Martu


Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of oral health education and non-surgical periodontal therapy on the quality of life for a group of patients with type I diabetes mellitus, in Iasi, Romania.

Materials and Method: The study was conducted on 21 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus which also presented a form of periodontitis. We examined: the degree of glycaemic control (by measuring the glycated haemoglobin), the periodontal and oral hygiene parameters at the baseline and after 4 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after the periodontal treatment which consisted in scaling and root planing. The patients also filled an OHIP-14 questionnaire at baseline and 6 month after the periodontal therapy to assess the quality of life.

Results and Discussion: We observed a rapid recurrence of the deep periodontal pockets after 12 months in subjects with poor glycaemic control. At baseline, the highest scores for the OHIP-14 were in the sub-domains of pain, discomfort on chewing and self-consciousness.

Conclusions: The prolonged poor control of glycaemia is closely related with its complications. The periodontal therapy improved (lower values) the domain codes and final score of the OHIP-14 questionnaire, proving that periodontal health has an impact on the diabetic patients’ quality of life.

Open access

Erieta Nikolikj-Dimitrova, Antonio Gavrilovski and Violeta Dejanova-Ilijevska


Background: Treatment of hemophilic arthropathy may be conservative and operative. Conservative therapy includes medications and physiotherapy, and surgery includes synovectomy, tendon release, capsulotomy, osteotomy and total joint arthroplasty. During physiotherapy, surgery and postoperative rehabilitation haemophiliacs need to receive clotting factor.

Aim: We present our first experience in multidisciplinary treatment of a patient with severe haemophilia A during and after total hip replacement surgery, the patient’s outcome after postoperative rehabilitation treatment and 6 months later.

Material and Methods: In a patient, age 28, with severe Haemophilia A, hip replacement surgery with total hip cementless prosthesis on his left hip was undertaken. Prophylaxis was done with concentrate of human coagulation factor VIII. Patient assessment was made with clinical findings, VAS for pain, Harris Hip Score for surgery outcome.

Results: The postoperative rehabilitation treatment program consisted of exercise therapy, occupational therapy and education. After the rehabilitation Harris Hip Score was 79 points, and 89 after six months follow-up.

Conclusion: The arthroplasty of the hip can be a valuable option in the management of severe hemophilic arthropathy. The successful outcome of replacement surgery in haemophilia depends upon a close collaboration between the orthopaedic surgeon, heamatologist/specialist of transfusion medicine, physiatrist and other team members.