During a 2-month fieldwork in Kathmandu, I met a number of Ahmadiyya refugees from Pakistan. Although the Government of Nepal does not recognise them as refugees, they get some living allowance (4,000 Nepalese Rupees per month in 2009) from the International Organisation of Migration (IOM). Despite this allowance, they were observed to live under difficult circumstances. I enquired a 20-year-old Ahmadiyya his reasons for living in such miserable conditions. In reply, he stated that unlike in Pakistan, there was no threat to his life in Nepal
soft power to the maximum extent, often with great intensity. The instruments of the state’s hard power, such as forced migration, population transfer, legal sanctions and penalties ( Yilmaz 2002 , 2003 , 2005a ) were used to impose uniformity on Turkish society. In addition, the resources of educational and religious institutions, the media, the arts and such, which Althusser (1971) called “ideological state apparatuses” in addition to organic intellectuals ( Gramsci 1971 ) were used to socially engineer the “acceptable citizen” ( Yilmaz 2013 , 2014 , 2015
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