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Journal for Technology of Plasticity

The Journal of University of Novi Sad

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Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics

The Journal of West University of Timisoara

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J. Timm

Abstract

On the basis of numerous research results and data on the development of condensate contents of German cigarettes, their share of the market, the smoked length of cigarettes in laboratory tests as opposed to the average smoker, the pro capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the trends of the smokers' share, an estimate has been prepared in the Federal Republic on the yearly pro capita consumption of smoke condensates covering the years 1961-1969. The value for 1961 amounts to 40.2 gr., whereas for the year 1969 31.9 gr. Have been obtained. This means that the consumption of cigarette condensates in the Federal Republic has decreased during the last years. At a nearly constant share of smokers it can be seen that the consumption of smoke condensates per smoker has decreased by about 20 % during the years between 1961 and 1969 despite an increased cigarette consumption

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Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica

The Journal of Wrocław University of Science and Technology and AGH University of Science and Technology

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J. Timm

Abstract

Numerous investigations and data on the development of smoke condensate and nicotine in German cigarettes, the changes in the market shares, the length of cigarettes smoked in laboratories and by the average consumer, and the per capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany were utilised in calculating the average delivery of smoke condensate and nicotine and for estimating the per capita consumption of moist and dry cigarette smoke condensate and the nicotine contained in it. In the period from 1961 to 1972 (for dry condensate figures are available only for 1966 to 1972) all these figures display a downward trend. Expressed in terms of the total population the reduction in moist condensate is about 28 %, nicotine about 27 % and dry condensate (for the shorter period 1966 to 1972) about 21 %. The percentages of smokers in the German population and among foreign workers, the development and age structure of the resident population and of the percentage of foreign workers were utilised to also ascertain from the above results the development of the condensate and nicotine consumption of the potential and actual smokers. The result is again a reduction of consumption of 27 % each for moist condensate and nicotine and 20 % for dry condensate (in the shorter period 1966 to 1972). If these figures are converted to the equivalent of cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961 the consumption of 22 cigarettes a smoker established for 1972 corresponds to a mere 11 cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961. The actual daily consumption at that time, however, was about 15 cigarettes a smoker

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W. Schulz and F. Seehofer

Abstract

The influence of the economic depression on the length of cigarette butts in the Federal Republic of Germany was investigated in the summer of 1974. After the interruption of the continual increase in the butt lengths of filter cigarettes and plain cigarettes by the tobacco tax rise on 1st September 1972, there was a further decrease in the butt lengths untiI August 1974. This was 0.44 mm for filter cigarettes and 1.5 mm for plain cigarettes. The lengths of butts discarded by smokers were on average

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J. Misfeld and J. Timm

Abstract

On the basis of numerous research results and data on the development of nicotine and condensate contents of German cigarettes, of their respective shares in the market, the smoked length of cigarettes, and of the pro capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany, an estimate has been prepared on the yearly pro capita consumption of smoke condensate and nicotine in the Federal Republic covering the years 1961-1970. The values for 1961 amount to 40.2 g of smoke condensate (crude) and to 2.04 g of nicotine. The values for 1970 are found to be only 29.4 g and 1.63 g respectively. That means that the consumption of smoke condensate and nicotine in the Federal Republic has decreased during the last ten years. The share of smokers having remained almost the same, the consumption of smoke condensate and nicotine per smoker is, as well, found to have decreased by about 27 % and 20 % respectively during the years between 1961 and 1970 despite an increased cigarette consumption.

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Germán Ayala, Rubén A. Vargas and Ana C. Agudelo

Abstract

Effects of temperature and glycerol concentration on rheological properties of potato starch solutions were investigated. The flow behaviour (shear stress against shear rate) was fitted to various models: power law, Herschel-Bulkley, Bingham, modified Bingham and Casson models. However, it was found that the Herschel-Bulkley model describes better the flow behaviour observed at various temperatures and glycerol concentrations, for flow behaviour index values between 0.44 and 0.78, typical of pseudoplastic solutions. The effect of glycerol concentration on each of the fitting parameters for Herschel-Bulkley model was well modelled by a second-degree polynomial at various temperatures. The simultaneous influence of glycerol concentration and temperature on shear stress could be represented empirically by a second-degree polynomial function that includes linear coupling between concentration and temperature. Finally, the variation of the consistency coefficient with both temperature and glycerol concentration was well described by an exponential expression, with an activation energy value of 2.78 kJ mol-1. The results indicate that both glycerol content and temperature have the effect of diluting potato starch solutions.