Numerous theoretical and empiric studies investigate the correlation between education and human capital and economic development. Full affirmation of knowledge and the role of education in stimulating economic growth were provided by endogenous theory. The subject of this paper is to analyse the correlation between education and educational system and the economic growth of the Western Balkans countries (WB). The hypothesis of this work says that: education and educational system in the WB affect the growth of GDP per capita. A better education system stimulates and accelerates the economic growth and development. The aim of this research is to prove that an optimal education system stimulates the growth and development in each observed national economy. In this paper, the results of the correlation analysis indicate high compliance of higher education with GDP per capita i.e. higher education population is particularly important for the level of development whereas there is a highly compliant but inverse relation of the population with informal level of education and economic development in the WB countries.
The economic potential of a country is directly related to a policy of creating new jobs, increasing labour productivity, balancing energy and materials consumption, technological innovation, refurbishing the production base, and taking action to create an environment for attracting investment and stimulating domestic consumption, as well as increasing exports of goods and services. A key feature of the economic system, that determines its ability to maintain normal living and working conditions for the population, is to guarantee and protect the sustainable development of the economy and the realisation of national economic interests. This article is addressed to two main economic security indicators - economic growth and investment activity of the state. It presents a specific comparison of real GDP per capita and growth rate in the European Union, the Eurozone and the Republic of Bulgaria and GDP per capita in purchasing power standards in the European Union, the Eurozone and the Republic of Bulgaria. The flow of foreign direct investment by economic sectors in the Republic of Bulgaria is been considered, including annual data, foreign direct investment flows by countries and the international position of the Republic of Bulgaria in this process
The aim of this paper is to analyze if the Western Balkan and Eastern Partnership countries converge towards the twenty-eight members of the European Union. The relationships between the selected macroeconomic variables and per capita GDP growth rate are econometrically tested to support this research. The analyzed period is 2004–2017, with two sub-periods: 2004–2008 and 2009–2013. The subdivision is made to test whether the recent financial crisis affected the absolute and conditional convergence process in the analyzed group of countries. The empirical findings support the economic convergence hypothesis. The results show that the recent financial crisis negatively affected the absolute and conditional convergence process, when economic variables are included in the analysis. The negative effects of the crisis on conditional convergence with economic and socio-political variables are not identified. The poorer countries in the analyzed group should do more to attract investment and open their economies, as gross fixed capital formation and economic openness have a positive impact on per capita growth, and keep low inflation or stabilize it, while general government debt and unemployment should be decreased in the examined sample of countries.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment. To analyse whether it is marginalised groups who are more likely to engage in unregistered employment and explain the country-level variations, a 2010 Life in Transition Survey (LiTS) involving 38,864 interviews in 35 Eurasian countries is reported. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals that younger age groups, the divorced, and those with fewer years in education, are more likely to be unregistered employed. On a country-level, meanwhile, the prevalence of unregistered employment is strongly associated with tax morale; the greater the asymmetry between informal and formal institutions, the greater is the prevalence of unregistered employment. It is also higher when GDP per capita as well as social distribution and state intervention (subsidies and transfers, social contribution expenditure, health expenditure) are lower. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and policy implications.
This paper is explaining the relationship between NAFTA foundation and business cycles length. Has the participation in a multinational organization changed their frequency? Initially; we used GDP per capita growth annual data for each country countries (Canada, Mexico and USA) for 63 years (1950-2012). The data was cut for each country in two pieces one before the 1995 and one on the year of integration and after. Then we selected their spectral density plots in order to find periodicity eliminating the background noise from a periodogram. The results show that Canada doubled its cycle length progressively. Mexico and USA seem to have currently smaller but growing cycles than they used to have.
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We analyze the influence of newly constructed globalization measures on regional growth for the EU-27 countries between 2001 and 2006. The spatial Chow-Lin procedure, a method constructed by the authors, was used to construct, on a NUTS-2 level, complete regional data for exports, imports and FDI inward stocks, which serve as indicators for the influence of globalization, integration and technology transfers on European regions. The results suggest that most regions have significantly benefited from globalization measured by increasing trade openness and FDI. In a non-linear growth convergence model, the growth elasticities for globalization and technology transfers decrease with increasing GDP per capita. Furthermore, the estimated elasticity for FDI decreases when the model includes a higher human capital premium for CEE countries and a small significant growth enhancing effect accrues from the structural funds expenditures in the EU.
Socio-economic potential of Polish cities - a regional dimension
The main aim of the research presented in this paper was to construct and evaluate a synthetic index of socio-economic potential of Polish cities (IoEp) at the level of voivodships and also to examine relations between this potential and the economic development of regions. The index reflects the level of localisation advantages offered by a city. That is why an assumption was made that there is a positive relationship between the level of socio-economic potential of cities in a region (measured by the IoEP index) and its level of economic development. The obtained results show that there are significant and stable differences in the level of economic potential of Polish cities. One can also observe that the higher the level of IoEP was, the higher the value of regional GDP per capita. That gives some basis to positively verify the research hypothesis.
This paper presents an empirical investigation of a large number of potentially significant determinants of current account deficits in five EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey) in the period 2005 Q1-2015 Q4. Using panel regression techniques we find that current account imbalances in the EU candidate and potential candidate countries are mainly determined by real GDP growth rate and the degree of trade integration. Other factors that have a significant impact on current account balances include relative per capita income, crude oil trade balance and level of financial development. Interestingly, the status of the observed country (an EU candidate or a potential candidate country) does not have any effect on the current account balance. It is expected that further economic and financial development of the EU candidate and pre-accession would encourage domestic saving and contribute to improvement of their current account positions.