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Mustapha Diaf, Méghit Boumediene Khaled and Feriel Sellam

References 1. Haslam DW, James WP. Obesity. Lancet 366: 1197-209, 2005. 2. Hossain P, Kawar B, El Nahas M. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world--a growing challenge. N Engl J Med 356: 213-5, 2007. 3. D'Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 117: 743-53, 2008. 4. Grover SA, Kaouache M, Rempel P et al. Years of life lost and healthy life-years lost from diabetes and

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Anetta Lasek-Bal, Jan Szymszal and Zofia Kazibutowska

-874. 14. Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study.Stroke. 1991; 22: 983-988. 15. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Manolio T, et al. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in elderly subjects (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Am J Cardiol. 1994; 74: 236-241. 16. Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA, et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation

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Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Abel Romero-Corral, Virend K. Somers, Justo Sierra-Johnson, Keith D. Lindor, Paul Angulo and Francisco Lopez-Jimenez

References 1. Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology. 2007; 45:846-54. 2. Church TS, Kuk JL, Ross R, Priest EL, Biltoft E, Blair SN. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and waist circumference to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 2023-30. 3. Park SH, Kim BI, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Park DI, Cho YK, et al. Body fat

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Alireza Sepehri Shamloo, Nikolaos Dagres, Arash Arya and Gerhard Hindricks

. Arrhythmia & electrophysiology review. 2018; 7 (2):118-27. doi:10.15420/aer.2018.18.2. 35. SCHNABEL RB, YIN X, GONA P, LARSON MG, BEISER AS, MCMANUS DD et al. 50 year trends in atrial fibrillation prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study . Lancet (London, England). 2015; 386 (9989):154-62. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61774-8. 36. DE BECKER B, DE BORNE PHILIPPE V. Treatment of hypertension to prevent atrial fibrillation. Current pharmaceutical design. 2018. doi:10.2174/1381612825666181127100437. 37

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Muhammed Sait Toprak, Zeynep Gungor Ozturk, Ozlem Balci Ekmekci, Hakan Ekmekci, Baris Ikitimur, Bilgehan Karadag, Huseyin Altug Cakmak, Baris Ilerigelen and Huseyin Sonmez

intercellular adhesion molecule 1 are related in healthy subjects, and pointed out the risk of coronary heart disease [ 34 ]. Yeboah et al. showed that brachial FMD is a predictor of incident CV events in population-based adults, and that it improved the classification of individuals as low, intermediate, and high CVD risk compared with the Framingham Risk Score [ 35 ]. The contributions of biochemical endothelial markers to endothelium derived dilatation are difficult to define because their importance may vary lots of confounders. Determining endothelial function by

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Nora Rat, Adriana Mitre, Szilamér Korodi, István Benedek, Erzsébet Lázár, Johanna Kéri, Annamária Pakucs and István Benedek

. 2013;15:73. 49. Altun B, Colkesent Y, Gazi E, et al. Could Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness by Echocardiography be Correlated with Acute Coronary Syndrome Risk Scores. Echocardiography . 2013;30:1130-1134. 50. Gul I, Zungur M, Aykan A, et al. The relationship between GRACE score and Epicardial Fat thickness in non-STEMI Patients. Arq Bras Cardiol . 2016;106:194-200. 51. Ozcan F, Turak O, Canpolat U, et al. Association of epicardial fat thickness with TIMI risk score in NSTEMI/USAP patients. Herz . 2013;39:755-760. 52. Zencirci E

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Maria Kaczmarek and Magdalena Skrzypczak

Among Ache Amerindian Males in Paraguay , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. , 127 , 114-121 Campbell A., 1976, Subjective Measures of Well-Being , American Psychologist , 2 , 117-124 Chen Y-T., V. Vaccarino, C. S. Williams, J. Butler, L. F. Berkman, H. M. Krumholz, 1999, Risk factors for heart failure in the elderly: a prospective community-based study , American Journal of Medicine , 106 , 605-612 Crawford M. H., 2005, Genetics of biological aging in Mennonotes of Midwestern United States

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Nermin Öztürk, Esin Ozturk-Isik and Yekta Ülgen

.5 osteopenia, T-score ≤ -2.5 osteoporosis). In untreated, older post-menopausal women, when the BMD is lower, the fracture risk is greater. In general, fracture risk approximately doubles for each −1 decrease in T-score. The Z-score of < -2 represents BMD below the expected age range while for z > −2 BMD is within the expected age range. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using MATLAB R2017b (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA) program. DXA BMD measurements and characteristic frequencies were compared between all patients subgroups (osteopenic

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Davorina Petek and Janko Kersnik

cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Heart 2006; 92: 1752-1759. 4. Eichler K, Puhan MA, Steurer J, Bachmann LM. Prediction of first coronary events with the Framingham score: a systematic review. Am Heart J 2007; 153: 722-731. 5. Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, Boysen G, Burell G, Cifkova R, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur J

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Theodora Benedek, Nora Rat, Roxana Hodas, Diana Opincariu, András Mester and Imre Benedek

greater coronary artery calcification progression in subjects at intermediate risk by coronary calcium score: a serial study using non-contrast cardiac CT. Atherosclerosis. 2011;218:363-368. doi: 10.1016/j. atherosclerosis.2011.07.093. 14. Bettencourt N, Toschke A, Leite D, et al. Epicardial adipose tissue is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerotic burden. International Journal of Cardiology. 2012;158:26-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2010.12.085. 15. Mahabadi A, Berg M, Lehmann N, et al. Association of Epicardial Fat With