Tongwen Zhang, Ruibo Zhang, Bo Lu, Bulkajyr T. Mambetov, Nurzhan Kelgenbayev, Daniyar Dosmanbetov, Bagila Maisupova, Feng Chen, Shulong Yu, Huaming Shang and Liping Huang
samples of tree rings from coniferous species.
The widespread coniferous forests in Central Asia, comprising mostly local tree species ( Juniperus turkestanica Kom., Larix sibirica Ledeb., Pinus wallichiana and Picea schrenkiana ) provide a good opportunity for dendrochronological studies ( Esper, 2000 ; Chen et al ., 2012 ; Zhang et al ., 2014 ; Seim et al ., 2016 ; Opała et al ., 2017 ). Wooden cores derived from Central Asia have been systematically collected since the 1990s ( Bräuning, 1994 ; Esper et al ., 2007 ). Many dendrochronological studies
Friðgeir Grímsson, Guido W. Grimm, Reinhard Zetter and Thomas Denk
Heterobalanus (Oerst.) Menitsky): implications for oak systematics and evolution. Grana, 53: 255-282.
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Osvaldo Franco-Ramos, Markus Stoffel and Lorenzo Vázquez-Selem
and the existence of proximal fluvial landforms prevailing in vast areas of Central and South America facilitate lahar development, and have caused a multitude of disasters over the last few decades.
By way of example, considerable areas of Nicaragua and Honduras have been devastated by lahars triggered by the 1998 hurricane Mitch, claiming thousands of victims and causing enormous economic losses ( Vallance et al ., 2004 ; Guinau et al ., 2007). Other, more localized lahars may have caused fewer victims, but also devastated entire villages on the slopes of or
Michal Bošeľa, Róbert Sedmák, Róbert Marušák, Denisa Sedmáková, Rudolf Petráš and Milan Barna
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De Bruijn, H., Van den Hoek Ostende, L., Kristkoiz-Boon, E., Rummel, M., Theocharopoulos, C
Priyanka Monga, Madhav Kumar, Vandana Prasad and Yogesh Joshi
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Piotr Moska, Grzegorz Adamiec, Zdzisław Jary, Andrzej Bluszcz, Grzegorz Poręba, Natalia Piotrowska, Marcin Krawczyk and Jacek Skurzyński
key role. The changes in the Polish economy in the last 50 years caused a gradual decrease of the number of locations with easily accessible loess sediments as in the past there were tens of local brickyards which naturally facilitated access to deeper loess layers. The Złota loess profile described in the current work has been accessible for the last few years and became a valuable and representative location not only for Poland, but also for the whole central Europe. The unquestionable advantage of this location is the fact that a historically well-known loess
Piotr Moska, Grzegorz Adamiec, Zdzisław Jary and Andrzej Bluszcz
stimulation at the temperature 50°C for 200 s
IR stimulation at the temperature 290°C for 200 s
IR stimulation at the temperature 325°C for 100 s
Intensities measured in steps 4 and 8 were used for equivalent dose determination. For equivalent dose calculation, the first second of the OSL decay curve was used and the background signal was estimated using its last 10 seconds. The ages were calculated using the Central Age Model (CAM) ( Galbraith et al ., 1999 ) and are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 4 where the relative
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