Szczepan Grosel, Michał Pachnicz, Adrian Różański, Maciej Sobótka and Damian Stefaniuk
proper bedding and backfill soil is of crucial importance. According to the existing requirements [ 4 ] for bedding and backfill, in the case of soft soils, it is necessary to provide a layer of gravel with thickness of at least 0.2 m and a layer made of cohesionless soil with thickness of 0.15 m. The backfill has to reach 0.3 m above the pipe. The original soil can be used to fill the remaining part of excavation if the pipe is settled under green areas.
Nevertheless, under the roads, the same material must be used for backfilling the entire excavation. Furthermore
, entirely flexible tendon. The tendon is attached at a distance h, below the block’s top surface.
Geometry of the problem
The horizontal ground surface is not loaded. The elastic – perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb model was assumed for the sand surrounding the block and the linear elastic model for concrete of the anchor block. The parameters of both models are listed in Table 1 .
Tomasz Strzelecki, Anna Uciechowska-Grakowicz, Michał Strzelecki, Eugeniusz Sawicki and Łukasz Maniecki
-bearing horizon is present in Quaternary sands and gravels, and it has a hydraulic connection with the Oder River. The chemical composition of groundwater was described in detail by Miotliński, Postma & Kowalczyk (2012) . These soils are present throughout nearly the entire area of the right-bank dam at a depth of 0.3 ÷ 8.0 m below the ground level, and at km 1+480 and 2+280 of the dam, they are present directly under the soil layer. The overlay and underlay of the aquifer are made up of cohesive Holocene formations. Shallow suspended waters may also occur periodically in the
Prandtl G 1921 Eindringen steifigkeit und festigkeit von schneiden, Angew Math. U. Mech 1 15
 Purkayastha, R. D. & Char, R. A. (1977). Stability analysis for eccentrically loaded footings. J. Geotech. Eng. 103 (6), pp. 647–651
Purkayastha R. D Char R. A 1977 Stability analysis for eccentrically loaded footings J. Geotech. Eng 103 6 647 651
 Ramlot, C. & Vandeperre, L. (1950). Electric pylons of foundations: Their resistance to overturning their stability, their calculation. Research rep 2 IRSIA, France
Krzysztof Skrzypkowski, Waldemar Korzeniowski, Krzysztof Zagórski, Ireneusz Dominik and Krzysztof Lalik
the stability of mine workings, the most notable include rock bursts, [ 4 , 19 ] faults, [ 2 , 14 , 25 ] potential rock bursts under abandoned workings [ 3 ] and the size of stoops. [ 1 ] State mining authorities also play a special role in improving the occupational health and safety conditions in mining. [ 7 ] When independent roof bolting is used in a rock that has the potential to generate seismic energy, the amount of energy absorbed by such bolting should be determined. [ 18 , 20 , 21 ] In order to ensure roof bolting effectiveness, measures must be
, 21 , 22 , 23 ] studied the non-linear stability analysis for thermal convection in a magnetized ferrofluid heated from below saturating a porous medium. Sunil et al. [ 24 , 25 ] studied the non-linear stability analysis for thermal convection in a couple-stress fluid heated from below saturating a porous medium. Hsu et al. [ 26 ] studied the combined effects of couple stress and surface roughness using journal bearings lubricated with the non-Newtonian fluid. It was found that the combined effects of couple stress and surface roughness can improve the load
Nabil Manchar, Chaouki Benabbas, Riheb Hadji, Foued Bouaicha and Florina Grecu
]. So far, there is no agreement that which one is the best, but the general consensus is that each method has its advantages and disadvantages [ 23 , 24 ].
The aims of this study were to assess landslide susceptibility for the east of Constantine province, using the WoE, IV and FR models, and to measure their performances based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis [ 25 ]. This information could be used by land planners to estimate the threats to population, property and transportation network.
The study area is located the east of the
Tadeusz Majcherczyk, Zbigniew Niedbalski and Łukasz Bednarek
the rock mass to the yielding arch support had a vertical direction.
The instrumented rock bolt, with strain gauges fixed at the spacing of 0.25 m, had a total length of 2.5 m and was installed in the roof of every mining excavation. Measurements of the resistance value of each strain gauge were performed using a specialised meter. The first measurement was made before installing the instrumented rock bolt as a base measurement against which resistance changes were calculated during subsequent control measurements. The numerical values recorded by the meter were