Rasha A. Radwan, Nermeen Z. Abuelezz, Sahar M. Abdelraouf, Engy M. Bakeer and Abdullah A. Abd El Rahman
, 16 ).
Recently, emerging evidence increasingly suggests a significant role for the neurotransmitter Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in PCOS. Recent animal model studies have shown that elevated androgen levels maintained PCOS by promoting central GABA secretion and activating central GABA-ergic receptors stimulation to the neural GnRH cascade ( 17 , 18 , 19 ). Furthermore, Kawwass et al. ( 20 ) were the first to show that PCOS women exhibited high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GABA and total testosterone levels, supporting the central role hypothesis of GABA in PCOS
Ranko Stojković, Aleksandra Fucic, Dušica Ivanković, Zoran Jukić, Petra Radulović, Josip Grah, Nenad Kovačević, Lovro Barišić and Božo Krušlin
6. Hyodo H, Ishiguro H, Tomita Y, Takakura H, Koike T, Shimizu T, et al. Decreased serum testosterone levels in long-term adult survivors with fatty liver after childhood stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012;18:1119-27. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.01.004
7. Fucic A, Gamulin M, Ferencic Z, Rokotov DS, Katic J, Bartonova A, Lovasic IB, Merlo DF. Lung cancer and environmental chemical exposure: a review of our current state of knowledge with reference to the role of hormones and hormone
Abdul Alhassan, Mohamed Mabrouk, Ramatu Idris, Emmanuel Salawu, Abiodun Oyerinde and Zainab Bauchi
Aqueous Extract of Juglans Nigra Prevents Lead Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats
Background. Lead is a heavy metal that has been known for its adverse effects on many body organs and systems and thus their functions.
Aim. In this study, the toxic effect of lead on the testicular system was investigated, and Aqueous Extract of Juglans Nigra (JnE) (a well known antioxidant) was administered orally to prevent this effect.
Materials and Methods. Twenty-four adult male Wister rats, randomly divided into four groups (n = 6), were used for this study. Group B and Group D were given 3g of JnE/Kg Body Weight/Day (orally) and 1% sodium acetate and Lead acetate respectively, while group A (control) and group C were given sodium acetate and lead acetate respectively. All treatments were for eight weeks. The animals were sacrificed twenty-four hours after the last treatment. Sperm count, motility, morphology, and testosterone level were determined. The control and "test" groups were compared using independent-sample t-test.
Results. The results obtained showed that lead caused a significant decrease in epididymal weight, sperm count, sperm mortility and testosterone level; and significant increase in abnormal structure of spermatozoa. These (abnormalities) were however, prevented in the JnE treated groups.
Conclusion. It is therefore concluded that oral admistration of JnE promote fertility and annuls lead induced testicular texicity.
Boric acid administration has a detrimental effect on reproductive organs, livers, and kidneys in rats. In the present study, male Wistar rats were orally fed with boric acid at a dose regimen of 350 mg/kg bodyweight for a period of 30 days, followed by oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Eclipta alba at a dose regimen of 500 mg/kg body weight orally for 60 days. The boric acid treated group showed signs of toxicity, such as liver damage, nephropathy, and complete damage to the testis, as early as 15 days which became aggravated by 30 days of the boric acid study period. Oxidative stress in all of the vital organs showed a significant increase. Following the plant extract treatment, complete reversal in reproductive toxicity was observed. The hormonal levels viz., testosterone, estrogen, and FSH returned to normal ranges after the 60 days of plant extract treatment. Significant reversal comparable to the control groups was observed in oxidative stress in the vital tissues. The fertility of the rats was found to be restored. The altered tissue morphology showed significant signs or recovery as observed under light microscopic examination. Thus, overall recovery was observed in the boric acid treated rats which received treatment with the plant extract. It can be concluded that Boric acid definitely has detrimental effects on the male reproductive system and the plant extract showed promising results. However, the mode of action and the active components for the same needs to be further investigated.
Titpawan Nakpheng, Somchai Sawatdee, Khemmarat Buaking and Teerapol Srichana
Background: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a naturally occurring hormone that controls sex hormones in both men and women. In general, LHRH is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract due to its large molecular size, high polarity, and loss from enzymatic degradation.
Objective: Prepare and develop LHRH in a dry power formulation with stability and biological activity.
Methods: Mannitol (M) and glycine (G) were chosen as ingredients to stabilize and protect LHRH during the freeze drying processes and during storage. The physicochemical properties of LHRH dry powders were examined by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, and photon correlation spectroscopy. The release of LHRH from the dry powder was carried out in dissolution apparatus. In addition, a rat model was employed to study the bioactivity of LHRH in the dry powder form.
Results: The LHRH dry powder formulations using M and G in the ratios of 6:4 and 7:3 were more stable than other formulations. LHRH colloids containing M:G showed no aggregation after storage at 4°C for one month. The concentration of LHRH in the dry powder form was more stable than that of LHRH in solution form. All the LHRH dry powder formulations were instantly dissolved within 10 seconds in an aqueous medium. After the LHRH dry powder (13 mg) was reconstituted and administered intraperitoneally to male rats during a one-month period, the testosterone level in the plasma was significantly decreased compared with an untreated group (15.0±1.0 ng/mL, 15.0±1.0 ng/mL and 20.0±2.0 ng/mL for LHRH containing M:G; 6:4, 7:3, and 8:2, respectively, compared to the control of 35±2 ng/mL, p<0.05).
Conclusion: The LHRH dry powder formulations had good physicochemical properties and bioactivity.
Radosław Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Bogusław Czerny and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of standardized crude aqueous Epilobium angustifolium L. extract [100 mg/kg/day, p.o.] on the expression level of SRC kinase mRNA - a representatives of non-genomics xenobiotics signaling pathway in prostate ventral lobes of testosterone-induced, castrated rats. We have shown that in all analyzed groups induced by testosterone an elevation of SRC kinase mRNA transcription was observed, in comparison to control animals (not receiving the testosterone), (p<0.05). Finasteride in rats induced by testosterone caused the strongest inhibition of SRC mRNA transcription (p<0.05). In rats receiving testosterone and the plant extract a ca. 90% decrease of mRNA level was observed vs. testosterone-induced animals (p<0.05), while in testosterone-induced animals receiving concomitantly E. angustifolium extract and finasteride the observed reduction reached 87.3% (p<0.05).
We did not observed, however, any positive feedback between studied plant extract and finasteride in the inhibitory activity (p<0.05). Further experimental studies should be performed in order to the understanding the molecular basis of interactions, the efficacy and safety of tested plant extract.
Mohammad Keshavarz, Mahdi Bayati, Babak Farzad, Amirbahador Dakhili and Hamid Agha-Alinejad
The lengths of the index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers would represent a lot of information in humans. In fact, the 2D:4D ratio has been studied in different research related to human’s physical or even psychological characteristics. For example, males have a lower 2D:4D ratio than females, and this reflects high utero testosterone exposure in their prenatal period ( Fink et al., 2006 ; Manning and Bundred, 2000 ). Moreover, longitudinal studies have shown that values of 2D:4D are relatively stable with growth ( McIntyre et al., 2005 ; Trivers
Engy Bakeer, Rasha Radwan, Ahmed El Mandoury, Abdullah Abd El Rahman, Mohamed Gad and Sahar Abd El Maksoud
Background: Recent studies have highlighted the role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in numerous ovarian disorders. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the major causes of infertility in Egypt. Several reports have linked PCOS with vitamin D deficiency. This investigation illustrates the possibility of using serum AMH for PCOS diagnosis in infertile Egyptian females, determines the variables affecting it and correlates it with serum 25(OH)D, testosterone, dyslipidemia and anthropometric parameters.
Methods: All parameters were assessed either with ELISA or colorimetrically in 53 infertile PCOS women and 17 age matched apparently healthy controls diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus.
Results: Serum AMH, total testosterone, triacylglycerol (TG) levels and BMI were significantly higher in PCOS group compared to healthy controls (p=0.0239, p=0.0381, p=0.0457, and p=0.0067, respectively), while serum 25(OH)D levels and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly lower (p=0.0397 and p=0.0443, respectively). No significant correlation existed between AMH and 25(OH) D, BMI and dyslipidemia markers. AMH was found to have a significant negative correlation with age and a highly significant positive one with total testosterone in PCOS group (r=-0.303, p=0.027 and r=0.370, p=0.008, respectively). In the receiver operating characteristic curve of AMH, the cut-off value was 42.63 pmol/L with a specificity of 59% and a sensitivity of 82%. Multivariate regression analysis showed total testosterone to be the only determinant for AMH (β=0.381 and p=0.038).
Conclusions: There should be a future trend of using AMH as a diagnostic marker for PCOS in Egyptian females. The variation in serum AMH levels is determined by total testosterone.
Prawit Onpanna, Paiboon Daosodsai, Kawin Leelawat and Supatra Porasuphatana
variables; (1) CSH consumption patterns (self-report by self-medication questionnaire), (2) physical examination included determination of age, weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse, (3) general clinical variables included serum hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density cholesterol, and high density cholesterol), and (4) specific inflammatory markers included CRP and Fb.
Blood samples were obtained following a minimum of an 8 h fasting, and after at least 10 min of
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Hausmann M, Tegenthoff M, Sanger J, Janssen F, Gunturkun O, Schwenkreis P. Transcallosal inhibition across the menstrual cycle: a TMS study. Clin Neurophysiol 2006;117:26-32.
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