The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale
Katarzyna Bułkowska, Ireneusz Białobrzewski, Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin, Ewa Klimiuk and Tomasz Pokój
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Yvetta VELÍSKOVÁ, Peter HALAJ, Marek SOKÁČ and Viliam BÁREK
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a key initiative aimed at improving water quality throughout the EU. The development of the computer technologies enables us to solve the ecological problems in water management practice very efficiently. The mathematical and numerical modelling allows evaluating various situations of contaminants spread in rivers (from everyday wastewater disposal through the fatal discharges of toxic substances) without immediate destructive impact on the environment. The paper deals with 1-dimensional numerical model HEC-RAS and its response on various values of dispersion coefficient. This parameter is one of the most important input data for simulation of pollution spread in streams. There were performed tracer experiments in the Malá Nitra River and results of these measurements are compared with results of numerical simulations. The values of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient were estimated from this comparison. The range of mean values of this coefficient determined on the base of numerical model application was 0.05 – 0.13 m2 s−1, for the other flow condition it was 0.07 – 2.5 m2 s−1 or 0.28 – 0.6 m2 s−1. The next task was carrying out the model sensitivity analysis, which means to evaluate input data influences, especially longitudinal dispersion coefficient, on outputs computed by 1-dimensional simulation model HEC-RAS. According to the results it can be said that the model HEC-RAS responds to longitudinal dispersion coefficient value changes adequately, suitably and proportionately. The application of the model HEC-RAS demonstrated the eligibility for simulation of pollution spread in streams, which means that it is a suitable tool allowing a reasonable support in decision making process connected to river water quality management.
Stanisław M. Rybicki and Małgorzata Cimochowicz-Rybicka
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