The article discusses changes in species richness and numbers of flies (Diptera, Brachycera) in the Lake Engure Nature Park (LENP) during 1995-2012. The study was performed within the framework of the National Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network of Latvia. During the period of study, a statistically significant increase in positive temperature sums (> 4 °C) was observed at the local meteorological station (R2 = 0.489; P < 0.01). Insects were collected three times per season (June, July, and August) by entomological sweep net from twelve sample plots, which represented a variety of habitats of the LENP - dry xerophytic, mesophytic and humid hygrophytic ones. In total 411 species from 35 families were identified. Dry sample plots showed a statistically significant increase in species richness and/or numbers of flies during the period of study. Humid sample plots did not show any statistically significant trends except for two grassland plots where large herbivores were introduced in 2005 for grassland management purpose. Pooling the data from all sample plots, except those grazed by large herbivores, yielded a statistically significant trend of increase in species richness of flies (R2 = 0.647; P < 0.01). Among the main trophic groups zoophagous species showed the largest number of statistically significant positive trends mostly within the dry sample plots. For several sample plots significant positive correlations were recorded between species richness of zoophagous flies and annual sums of positive temperatures. It was hypothesised that climate warming may have an indirect effect via interaction with other environmental factors such as moisture regime, nitrogen pollution, and vegetation structure.
Plant invasions are a serious global threat to biodiversity and ecosystem stability. The invasive giant knotweed Fallopia sachalinensis (synonym: Reynoutria sachalinensis) is one of the most aggressive plant invaders in many countries. It forms dense stands that prevent other species from growing. To assess the impact of the knotweed, oribatid mite communities were studied under Fallopia-free native vegetation and at Fallopia-infested sites (2 types: 90-100% and 30% of coverage) with similar soil. All the sites are located in mixed forest in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland (Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska) in south Poland. Species composition and functional group composition of oribatid mite communities were compared. In total, 1540 specimens belonging to 70 oribatid species were collected from 90 soil samples. This successful exotic invasive species had a moderate influence on species richness (20% less species at the totally invaded site than at the Fallopia-free site) and a profound effect on soil oribatid mite community composition. Several oribatid species characteristic of a particular site were observed. Shifts were detected in proportions of groups with different habitat specificity (e.g. higher proportion of eurytopic mites at invaded sites), ecomorphological groups (e.g. lower proportion of litter-dwelling mites at invaded sites), trophic groups (e.g. lower proportion of macrophytophagous mites at invaded sites) and zoogeographical groups (e.g. higher proportion of mites with broad geographical distribution at invaded sites). These observations prove the radical negative change of environmental conditions for soil oribatid mites as a result of Fallopia invasion. The increase in sexually reproducing oribatid mites at invaded sites suggests that this way of reproduction is preferable when resources are in shortage.
Judita Koreivienė, Jūratė Kasperovičienė and Jūratė Karosienė
The current study summarised the diversity of cyanobacteria found in various habitats of the second largest raised bog of Lithuania. A total of 56 cyanobacteria species that comprise 19% of all phycoflora diversity in Kamanos raised bog were recorded. Species from the Chroococcales (32 species) order and the Chroococcus (7), Aphanothece (7) genera were the most numerous. Twenty one cyanobacteria species were found in Lithuania for the first time. Most of species recorded in Kamanos raised bog were cosmopolite or distributed in temperate zone. One third of the species were characteristic particularly of the peat bogs. Thirty nine species of cyanobacteria were specific to the particular water body and occurred only in 1–3 of the studied localities. Only five species, i.e. Chroococcus turgidus, Aphanocapsa grevillei, Aphanothece elabens, Cyanosarcina sp. and Hapalosiphon sp. were common. Peculiarities of the habitat were the most important drivers determining species richness and composition of cyanobacteria in a particular locality.
Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta) occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.
V. V. Anistratenko, Yu. I. Furyk, O. Yu. Anistratenko and E. V. Degtyarenko
The diversity of freshwater gastropods recorded in the Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine is reviewed and comments on their distribution and ecology are provided. Thirty-five species were revealed in samples collected from the lowland and mountainous parts of the Ukrainian Transcarpathia. Three species are recorded for the first time in the regional fauna: Viviparus sphaeridius, Bithynia troschelii and Segmentina montgazoniana. For species found in the region brief remarks on the biotopes in which they were registered and relevant taxonomic comments are given. The most distinctive features of the mollusc fauna of Ukrainian Transcarpathia are considered; the presence as well as the absence of some taxa in comparison with adjacent regions is discussed. The results of our observations confirm that the distribution of gastropod species depends on the types of waterbodies and their altitude location. The presented data contribute to the knowledge of the regional malacofauna and should help to assess the biogeographic status of the Transcarpathian Region more clearly.
Environmental repercussion of subsidence reservoirs reclamation
Subsidence basins filled with water are being formed above exploitation fields also in woodland areas leading to changes in water relations simultaneously affecting creation of environmental islands characterized by higher biodiversity in comparison with adjacent areas.
Unfortunately, these types of water reservoirs from the legal point of view are considered mining damage and should thus be reclaimed. Reclamation usually consists in gravitational drainage and filling up with barren rock, appropriate relief forming and afforestation. So performed reclamation practices lead to negative effects both within the subsidence and in adjacent areas. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of reclamation based on filling subsidence with barren rock on changes in hydrology and biodiversity of nearby forest communities. For the purpose of the study two objects were selected: the existing water body and former water reservoir - at present filled with barren rock. Both are situated in Ślαskie voivodship (the territory of Mysłowice and Katowice). Within the two objects, hydrological studies at two sampling points in each of the objects and vegetation sampling were performed. The DCA of 12 transects (6 in each object) and statistical analyses of vegetation showed differences between two objects in species composition, especially due to higher abundance and coverage of invasive and expansive species in reclaimed areas. Chemical analyses showed high contamination of surface waters (by e.g. SO42-, Cl-, Na+) caused by waste deposition in barren rock and the negative effect of coal mine waters supplying the area of reclaimed reservoir.
Bryo-floristic data from the 19th century and the first decade of the 21th century were compiled and compared to find trends in moss flora transformations during the analysed period. The total number of moss species reported from the glacial cirques in the Polish part of the Karkonosze Mts. amounted to 229 (230 taxa) and the comparison showed 49% of species replaced; 68 taxa were not refound and 45 were reported for the first time. But it seems highly probable that a great number of “newcomers” occurred only in the past and were omitted or overlooked by the 19th century researchers. 23 species among those persistent during the 20th century were found presently in no more than half of the previous localities, so they seem to demand care as probably threatened. Full list of taxa recorded from the individual objects in the studied period, including results of herbarium specimen revision, is provided.
This study presents the species structure of macrofungi in different plant communities formed on fallows as a result of secondary succession. The mycological observations were carried out in 2012 and 2013 in the buffer zones of all landscape parks in the Łódzkie province, i.e. Bolimów LP, Spała LP, Sulejów LP, Warta-Widawka LP, Łódź Hills LP, Przedbórz LP and Załęcze LP. The botanical research identified fallows representing 7 types of plant communities. In total 46 macromycetes species were found on the fallows. The diversity of macrofungi depended on the type of plant community. The highest number of fungi species was found in the communities with an admixture of trees (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula), while the lowest was collected on fallows almost completely covered by Cirsium arvense and Solidago canadensis. Considering the trophic classification of macrofungi found on fallows, most species were saprotrophic and mycorrhizal. Wood inhabiting saprotrophs were represented by only two species
Prausová Romana, Štefánek Michal, Rauch Ota and Kovář Pavel
effects in restoration of surface soil crust microecosystem on abandoned tailings containment. – Journal of Landscape Ecology , 5(3): 57–69.
Urbanová, J., Kovář, P. et Dostál, P. (2017). What processes shape early-successional vegetation in fly ash and mine tailings? – Plant Ecology , 218(2): 127–137.
Vaňková, J. et Kovář, P. (2004). Plant speciesdiversity in the biotopes of un-reclaimed industrial deposits as artificial islands in landscape. – In: Kovář P. (ed.): Natural Recovery of Human-Made Deposits in Landscape (Biotic Interactions and Ore
Arboreta and the Botanical Gardens of the Fotest-Steppe of Ukraine. - Kyiv, 2011. - 192 p. - Russian : Колодочка Л. А., Омери И. Д. Хищные клещи семейства Phytoseiidae (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata) дендрологических парков и ботанических садов Лесостепи Украины.
Kolodochka, L. A., Samoilova, T. P. Patterns of the speciesdiversity for predatory phytoseiid mites (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) in urban plant associations // Proc. VII Congress Ukr. Entom. Soc. (Nizhyn, 14-18 August, 2007). - Nizhyn, 2007. - P. 58. - Russian : Колодочка Л. А., Самойлова Т. П