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MRSA in recurrent frontal sinusitis


The authors present a case of recurrent frontal rhinosinusitis, for which the drug therapy was ineffective. To avert the risk of complications, multiple classic and endoscopic surgical procedures were performed on the frontal sinus pathology.

The bacterium involved in this form of rhinosinusitis was represented by a Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) diagnosed during the first endoscopic approach (the second surgical procedure) for which the treatment corresponding to the antibiogram was followed. At the last hospitalization, the patient has underwent a frontal bilateral drainage surgery (modified Lothrop procedure) and started an adequate anti-MRSA treatment.

The authors wondered whether multiple recurrences of frontal rhinosinusitis are determined by an incomplete drainage, by a persistent infection with MRSA or by both.

Open access
A novel, cheap and easy to build FESS trainer


BACKGORUND. Simulation models have slowly been gaining a place in training and surgical skills, before attending the operating theatre. This paper presents a model that allows the trainee to practise the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) training in a safe, non-patient facing environment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. The method can be practised away from the operating theatre and the skills developed can then be transferred to the operating theatre. To create our FESS simulator, we use a cardboard tube and sheet, scissors, markers, cutter, foam, needles, catheters, plasticine, an inflatable balloon, a 10g lumbar puncture needle, one 5 cc syringe, two Blakesley forceps (straight and angled) and a 0° and 30° Hopkins rigid optics. In this simulator you can practise a puncture of the inferior turbinate, the endoscopic depth, remove a polyp, balloon dilation, a partial ethmoidectomy.

RESULTS. We describe a cheap and easy to build FESS training model, which allows the resident to practise this technique in a risk-free environment, while guaranteeing the reproducibility of the technique under similar conditions.

CONCLUSION. The high cost of digital simulators does not allow possible spreading this technology in every department. For that reason, the purpose of this paper is the acquisition of a set of skills that allow the resident to go to the operating room with clear concepts about the basic techniques.

Open access
Some forensic aspects of the nasal septal deformities


OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the foreign aspects in nasal septal deformities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Mladina classification of the nasal septal deformities was used.

RESULTS. Types 5 and 6 have been dominantly inherited. The mechanism of the onset and possible connection to the trauma against the nose, as well as clinical implications of the remaining four types of the nasal septal deformities, have been explained and described in detail, giving the court expert witnesses the excellent opportunity to make a reliable and valuable finding.

CONCLUSION. Type 5 and type 6 nasal septal deformities are never the consequence of the trauma against the nose. In most of the cases, this also concerns type 3. This type as well as type 7 require the latero-lateral and anterior-posterior X-rays of the nasal bones in cases when the nasal pyramid is concurrently deformed. Types 1 and 2 in most of the cases are connected to trauma against the nose.

Open access
Olfaction and traumatic head injury - Is it possible to discriminate between malingering and patients with smell disorders based on nowadays knowledge?


BACKGROUND. Olfaction is one the most important senses; however, even nowadays it is incompletely known in humans from an anatomical and physiological point of view, but also as concerns the assessment methods and treatment. The main causes for acquired olfactory dysfunctions involve inflammatory pathology (local or general) and head trauma. Olfactory impairment after traumatic head injury (THI) is more frequent than believed. Today there are a number of tests for assessing the loss of smell, but more studies are needed in order to establish standardized protocols for patients with such pathology after THI. This uncertainty is more and more exploited by malingerers.

OBJECTIVE. The aim of the paper was to find in literature the necessary information in order to permit a correct management of a patient with olfactory impairment after head trauma and to establish new protocols that may help identify malingerers when medico-legal implications exists.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied an amount of works and studies in order to highlight the diagnosis options specialist have, if such a case is encountered (olfactory loss after THI).

RESULTS. Recent studies show that great progress has been made, but more scientific research is needed. Specialists still search correlation between all diagnosis methods.

CONCLUSION. Olfactory disorders are an important topic given their importance in patient quality of life, but also for the medico-legal implications.

Open access
Computed-tomography volumetric study of the ethmoid labyrinth


Morphological variability of paranasal sinuses is well known for endoscopic surgeons and anatomists alike. The ethmoid sinus is the most complex and variable of all paranasal sinuses, due to the fact that its development is not yet well known and is influenced by many factors. Volumetric studies of the sinuses have been made using dried skulls, cadaver heads and imaging studies, but there are still not sufficient data in order to name a standard value for each sinus. Few data can be found especially regarding the ethmoid sinus. In this paper, we measured the volumes of ethmoid lateral masses, and for anterior and posterior groups of cells, using imaging studies and a volumetric feature of our imaging studies. Results showed an average volume between 7.34 cm3 and 8.39 cm3 for the ethmoid lateral mass, between 4.33 cm3 and 4.92 cm3 for the anterior ethmoid and between 3.01 cm3 and 3.47 cm3 for the posterior ethmoid groups. We also found that the average volume of the anterior ethmoid occupies between 58-59% of the whole volume, while the posterior ethmoid occupies only 41-42% of this volume.

Open access
Surgery for nasal obstruction in inferior turbinate hypertrophy


In the international literature, there is no consensus on patient selection for turbinate surgery. Surgery is usually indicated to the patients on the basis of subjective complaint of nasal obstruction and surgeon´s clinical examination. Although most surgical techniques demonstrate a subjective and objective improvement in postoperative nasal airflow and subjective scores, it is hard to say which technique is best suited for treating inferior turbinate enlargement. Inferior turbinate reduction for nasal obstructive symptoms caused by enlarged turbinates is a useful procedure and is reserved for patients who are not responding to medical treatment or in whom the medical management is contraindicated.

Open access
Advantages of VMAT-IMRT technique in nasopharyngeal cancer


BACKGROUND. Radiotherapy, associated with chemotherapy, is the main method of treatment in both early and advanced stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) provides high doses of radiation to the primary tumor, sparing the organs at risk. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is one of the most promising radiation methods which produces superior target coverage, improving the protection of organs at risk and reduces treatment time.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a retrospective study on 30 patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer and admitted in “Sfanta Maria” Clinical Hospital between October 2012 and December 2014. All patients have undergone VMAT-IMRT associated with induction or concurrent chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, patients were followed up at one, three and six months, and then every six months for 2 years.

RESULTS. At the end of the radio-chemotherapy treatment, 27 patients (90%) had a complete tumor and lymphatic response and 3 of them (10%) presented a partial response. At the end of the follow-up period, we observed 5 patients with recurrences, including 2 deceased.

CONCLUSION. VMAT-IMRT in association with chemotherapy treatment is well tolerated by patients. The good results reflected in high rates of cured patients, the low incidence of side effects, recommend this treatment plan as an optimal indication for nasopharyngeal tumors.

Open access
Rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope for rhinosurgery and diagnosis


BACKGROUND. The rigid endoscope developed by Karl Storz in 1961 led to a great advance in diagnosis and surgery and nowadays it is the gold standard in routine ENT practice. In addition, the development of video cameras has enhanced the surgical abilities as well as teaching opportunities in endoscopic sinus surgery.

OBJECTIVE. We developed a new prototype endoscope using the “chip-on-the-tip” technology. The aim of our non-clinical study was to observe and discuss the experimental data collected from laboratory tests on plastic models.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. The prototype rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope has two parts - inner and outer. The inner part includes the chip-on-the-tip camera, light source and the cable. The outer part is a metal tube ending with a 0-degree lens. We performed laboratory tests of the rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.

RESULTS. We have observed technical parameters of the rigid chip-on-the-tip in order to compare them to conventional endoscopes connected with camera head units that are standard equipment for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.

CONCLUSION. Its advantages compared to the conventional Hopkins endoscope, connected to a standard camera head, are the smaller size, weight and the necessity of only one cable instead of two, allowing easy handling.

Open access
Orbital decompression for inverted papilloma – Case report


Inverted papilloma is a rare benign sinonasal tumor with a still unclear etiology. In the last decades, HPV implication in inverted papilloma etiopathogeny has been studied and demonstrated in some scientific research papers, but with no causality proven. Imagistic investigations and the Krouse classification establish the surgical approach. Endoscopic surgery represents the golden standard treatment for most cases of inverted papilloma, while external or combined approaches present limited indications.

The authors present a case and therapeutic plan of an inverted papilloma located in the ethmoid sinus, with origin in the lamina papyracea and high-risk HPV implication.

Open access
Otologic symptomatology associated with the temporomandibular joint disorder


BACKGROUND. Functional connection between the stomatognathic system and the acoustic-vestibular apparatus is approached with interest in topical studies, in an attempt to elucidate in depth the cause-effect relationship between pathology and symptom. The temporomandibular joint disorder may be accompanied by a series of otological symptoms such as otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo. For this reason, for a correct diagnosis, a complex clinical examination is required both on the acousticvestibular analyzer and on neighbouring structures.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We conducted a clinical study, on a group of 97 patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and treated for this pathology. All patients included in the study were evaluated by the dentist and the ENT specialist. The patients were treated at the dental clinic and then returned to the ENT clinic two months after completion of the treatment for re-examination, recording changes in otologic symptoms in order to obtain the results of the study.

RESULTS. Of the 97 patients with TMJD, 58 also associated otic symptomatology (otalgia – 74.13%, tinnitus – 53.45%, vertigo – 43.10%). The evaluation done two months after treatment of the temporomandibular joint disorder revealed a significant remission of otalgia (decrease in Mean VAS from 6.05 to 2.49), followed by vertigo (from 5.08 to 2.52) and by tinnitus (from 4.84 to 3.84). Important changes also occurred in the results of the vestibular assessments.

CONCLUSION. The most common otological symptom of patients with TMJD is auricular pain. Otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo can be improved by dental treatment of the temporomandibular dysfunction, auricular pain having the highest rate of remission.

Open access