Pant P.P., Tripathi A.K.: Impact of heavy metals on morphological and biochemical parameters of Shorea robusta plant. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 33, No. 2, p. 116-126, 2014.
A study was conducted to determine the impact of heavy metals (cadmium [Cd], arsenic [As] and lead [Pb]) on the morphological, and biochemical parameters of Shorea robusta and to investigate the uptake capacity of this plant for individual heavy metal. The study showed that all three heavy metals had significant adverse impact on most of the plant parameters of S. robusta, at all the given concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 mg/l. Maximum reduction in morphological parameters is observed in leaf area (92.67%) followed by shoot length (54%) and, root length (28.78%). Maximum reduction in biochemical parameters is observed in amino acid (75.13%) followed by chlorophyll (68.33%) and, crude protein (35.68%), whereas polyphenol and ascorbic acid showed maximum enhancement of 77.1 and 139.8%, respectively. The accumulation of heavy metals was found to be higher in the root than shoot of S. robusta with maximum accumulation being 0.053 mg/g in root for Cd, 0.17 mg/g of As in leaf and, 0.201mg/g of Pb in soil. Concentration- dependent changes were observed in most of the morphological and biochemical parameters, which may thus serve to determine suitable bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution.
Azad J. Sharif, Ziyad R. Elias and Mohummed F. Omar
Sharif A.J., Elias Z.R., Omar M.F.: Water flow model for the Harrier basin, Kurdistan of Iraq. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 242-247, 2013.
The study includes computer topographic and morphologic simulation of water flow produced using a watershed modelling system that uses hydrologic and physical data from the study area. The DEM module, TIN module, Map module and Hydrologic module were used in this study. A land use data, a soil data and rainfall data were used to produce a curve that illustrates quantity of water flow versus time of water flow across the Harrier basin. The calculated water loss rate can be attributed to a number of factors such as joints, faults, bedding and land use (agriculture and forest). Land use and soil characteristics are both important factors affecting water flow rates. The climate in the Harrier basin is semi-arid. Simulated flow data indicate that the top flow rate is 32 m3/s and that water can reach to the basin outlet in 3 hours and 10 minutes.
Jürgen Breuste, Johanna Schnellinger, Salman Qureshi and Anna Faggi
Breuste J., Schnellinger J., Qureshi S., Faggi A.: Urban ecosystem services on the local level: Urban green spaces as providers. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 3, p. 209-304, 2013. Ecosystem services are provided at different spatial and service/functional scales. The local level is the basic unit for ecosystem services, especially when it comes to the human dimension of urban landscapes. These services are provided by green elements (patches) or basic complex ecosystems (green areas) which differ from their neighbourhoods through their structures and functions. This study reviews the generally available knowledge on urban green functions and services at the site level and explains them by using own studies in five different cities in three different continents related to distinct ecosystem services. This allows the development of a methodology to evaluate and compare ecosystem services at the site level. The methodology is based at two levels, patch and green space, and includes the relationship with the surrounding green and built-up space. Different urban green space types are characterized by their internal structures of vegetation, size, shape and location in relation to at least a semi-quantitative scaling of their urban ecosystem services. The evaluated urban green spaces are public urban green spaces. The urban ecosystem services assessed include climate regulation, biodiversity, nature experience, recreation and health. The actual urban challenges, such as land use change, adaptation to climate change, demographic change and urban cultural diversity, demand a systematic and very concrete monitoring of urban ecosystem services at the site level.
Václav Kadlec, Daniel Žížala, Ivan Novotný, Darina Heřmanovská, Jiří Kapička and Martin Tippl
Kadlec V., Žížala D., Novotný I., Heřmanovská D., Kapička J., Tippl M.: Land consolidations as an effective instrument in soil conservation. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 33, No. 2, p. 188-200, 2014.
In the Czech Republic, more than 50% of agricultural land is threatened by water erosion, which is tremendously increasing during last couple of years. Therefore, it is necessary to deal with soil conservation as soon as possible. Land consolidations (LCs) are thus an important tool for implementation of soil, water and landscape conservation measures. It is possible to arrange land ownerships by them. They also arrange land spatially and functionally, provide availability of parcels and their land use in public interest. Besides that, environmental improvement, soil conservation, water management and increase in landscape ecological stability supplement the use of LCs. The results of soil consolidations serve for renewal of cadastral records and for the backgrounds for landscape planning. The aim of the research was to evaluate the selected site (district Plzeň - South) with regard to the amounts and limits of proposed and implemented measures in LC process. The research was processed on the basis of detailed analysis regarding erosion risk and runoff conditions in GIS compared with the previous data (before LC).
Oimahmad Rahmonov, Leszek Majgier, Wiaczesław Andrejczuk, Jarosław Banaszek, Dominik Karkosz, Tomasz Parusel and Artur Szymczyk
Rahmonov O., Majgier L., Andrejczuk W., Banaszek J., Karkosz D., Parusel T., Szymczyk A.: Landscape diversity and biodiversity of Fann Mountains (Tajikistan). Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 388-395, 2013.
The aim of study is a presentation of main vegetation landscape diversity and biodiversity in case of endemic species in the Fann Mountains area, in horizontal and vertical approach. In terms of biodiversity, the high-mountain ecosystems of Central Asia include the most valuable areas in the world called as hotspot, and also are exposed to intense human pressure causing the destruction of habitats. Vegetation landscapes of Fann Mountains are very diverse because of high-mountain character of this area, local climatic conditions, topography and habitats. That differentiation leads up to biodiversity and formation of unique plant landscapes and endemic species. The vegetation landscapes in altitude order are represented by forbs meadow steppe, thymes, swamp, broad-leaf forest, juniper forests, flood-plain small-leaved forest, tugai, light deciduous forest, pistachio, forbs wormwood, almond, rare vegetation with cushion-shaped species, wormwood eurotia, steppe, thorny grasses with shrub-steppe, rocks and taluses with rare vegetation alpine zones. High level of endemism in Fann Mountains is connected to natural conditions such as geological structure, relief, high-mountain ranges and climate conditions. This fact has an influence on forming mosaic biotops, often isolated by orographic barriers.
Vasilije Isajev, Vera Lavadinović, Aleksandar Lučić and Ljubinko Rakonjac
Isajev V., Lavadinović V., Lučić A., Rakonjac L.J.: Serbian spruce (Picea omorca /Panc./ Purkyne) variability in the artificial populations in Serbia. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 3, p. 277-282, 2013. A great part of the genetic variation and the potentials of Serbian spruce natural populations have been incorporated in several plantations in the Western Serbia at the site Quercetum fraineto-cerris s.l., Salicetum fragillis s.l and Pinetum nigre s.l. and in other similar occurrences In this way, it becomes much more available for the research and future utilization. The intensive research of the plantations started by the classification of trees into phenogroups which were considered to be significant for forestry and horticulture. The differences between flowering years, plantations and individual trees in the regularity and abundance of micro- and macro-strobiles are major indicators f genetic variability in the reproductive cycle of Serbian spruce. The interaction of environmental characteristics and genotypes of extreme and average trees illustrate the reproductive ability of Serbian spruce on different sites and indicates that this species achieves the coenological and not the ecological optimum at its natural sites. Application of genetic/selection programmes can lead to the production of planting stock of desired and defined properties, which could survive the stress environmental factors, thanks to its morphological and physiological properties.
Wolfgang Sulzer, Josef Gspurning, Martin Magnes, Richard Pink, Marc Muick and Philipp Sengl
Sulzer W., Gspurning J., Magnes M., Pink R., Muick M., Sengl P.: Biotope mapping of extensive/ intensive grassland supported by remote sensing and mobile GIS in Eastern Styria (Austria). Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 335-344, 2013.
The paper presents a case study for the application of remote sensing data (ASTER, LAND SAT and RG B orthophotographs) and GIS and methods in the context of biotope/grassland mapping/ monitoring in the Province of Styria (Austria). The range of the applied case study covers the detection of extensive/intensive grassland by techniques of multi-temporal satellite and airborne classification for grassland detection. The methodologies of three topics are discussed in this paper: special intensive used grassland detection, the preparation of a field map, with pre-processed land use polygons, and the description of a conceptual approach for a mobile client/server GIS grassland management and monitoring support system. Although from the legal (Government of Styria) point of view these methodologies cannot be used for the specific biotope mapping purposes, the verified results are showing valuable additional information for the intensive mapping activity during the fieldwork and postprocessing.
Vukan Lavadinović, Zoran Popović, Zoran Ristić and Dejan Beuković
Lavadinović V., Popović Z., Ristić Z., Beuković D.: Threats and international tools for sustainable brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) management. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 345-351, 2013.
Negative relation between humans and large carnivores with unprofitable management caused a decrease in abundance of the latter within their natural habitat. Main reasons for negative attitudes of humans towards large carnivores are damages, fear and unfamiliarity with their characteristics. Brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a European autochthonous large carnivore. Although it is not threatened at the global level, its abundance in Europe is limited to several populations. Protection has an important role in brown bear conservation, since they face different threats, mainly by negative human activities. Conservation of the brown bear is complicated due to its habitats overlapping with the human environment and also because brown bears require large territories. In order to protect brown bears more efficiently, it is important to identify the threats and to conduct the species protection by international recommendations and agreements. In this paper, we analysed brown bear distribution in Europe, abundance limitation factors and international conservation instruments.
Catharinus F. Jaarsma, Frank van Langevelde and Raoul Beunen
Jaarsma C.F., van Langevelde F., Beunen R.: Landscape ecology and rural roads: Traffic calming for improving both landscape and wildlife? Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 352-360, 2013.
The concept of traffic calming has successfully improved road safety. This concept applied in rural areas has provided new insights in the mitigation of negative effects of roads and traffic. Earlier studies have shown that the concept, distinguishing between local access roads and rural arterial highways, can also improve landscape connectivity for wildlife. Physical speed-reducing devices are frequently used in the context of traffic calming, but applying these devices may negatively impact the coherence and identity of the landscape. Therefore an alternative approach for speed reduction has been proposed, namely applying local landscape elements (such as hedgerows), plantings and objects of cultural heritage (such as railings of small bridges over local water courses) as speed-reducing devices. We explain this ‘green approach’ with examples from Dutch practice. We conclude that a combination of disciplines is needed to realize this new approach, which may be more cost-effective than the traditional approach and additionally improve the landscape quality. The new insights are at least equally effective from a landscape ecological viewpoint.
). Checklist of non-vascular and vascular plants of Slovakia. Bratislava: Veda, vydavateľstvo SAV .
Jurko, A. (1958). Soil-ecological conditions and forest communities of the Podunajská nížina lowland (in Slovak). Bratislava: SAV .
Kollár, J., Kubíček, F. & Šimonovič V. (2010). Herb layer production in the willow stands on the Danubian soft-wood floodplain forest sites. Ekológia (Bratislava), 29, 15-19. DO I: 10.4149/ekol_2010_01_15.
Kubíček, F. & Brechtl J. (1970). Production and phenology of the herb layer in an oak