Nenad Keča, Ioannis Koufakis, Jana Dietershagen, Justyna A. Nowakowska and Tomasz Oszako
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Cleary M.R., van der Kamp B.J., Morrison D.J. 2012. Pathogenicity and virulence of Armillaria sinapina and host response to infection in Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar in the southern interior of British Columbia. Forest Pathology , 42, 481–491.
Cleary M, Holmes T. 2011. Traumatic resin duct formation in the phloem of western red cedar ( Thuja plicata ) following abiotic
Katarzyna Dmowska, Kinga Wieczorek, Orla Lynch and Jacek Osek
A total of 135 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from slaughtered cattle and beef meat were tested by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The AscI restriction analysis revealed a genetic heterogeneity among investigated isolates since 31, 9, and 35 profiles were distinguished among hide, carcass, and meat strains, respectively. The PFGE profiles of the isolates were also analysed in relation to serotypes, virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance. It was shown that strains displaying the same PFGE type were of the same serotype while correlation between pulsotype and antimicrobial resistance was poor. The obtained results suggest that a cross-contamination between bovine hides and carcasses may occur during the slaughter process. Moreover, identification of identical PFGE types among L. monocytogenes found during a study period may suggest a common source of contamination or presence of persistent strains able to survive for a long time. These results emphasise the importance of molecular subtyping methods, including PFGE, in monitoring and tracking pathogen contamination along food chain.
Mariola Bochniarz, Władysław Wawron, Marek Szczubiał, Piotr Brodzki, Tomasz Piech and Roland Kusy
The aim of the present study was to determine virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. The material consisted of 42 isolates of S. xylosus obtained from 276 samples of milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis. The isolates were obtained from the udder secretions of 33 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). S. xylosus was found in 15.2% of tested milk samples. The study did not reveal any macroscopic changes in the milk or symptoms in the cow’s body. The number of somatic cells in milk samples ranged from 245,000 to 416,000/ml of milk (on average 268,000/ml of milk). The ability to produce slime was observed in 42.9% of S. xylosus isolates. None of the tested isolates demonstrated the ability to produce protease or cause haemolysis. Five isolates of S. xylosus (11.9%) were classified to the methicillin-resistant group. The mecA gene was not found in any of these isolates. The enzyme β-lactamase was detected in 28.6% of S. xylosus isolates. The highest efficacy against S. xylosus was demonstrated for cephalosporin antibiotics: cefacetrile and cefoperazone (80.1% and 76.2% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus, respectively). A significant quantity of isolates was resistant to streptomycin, linkomycin, penicillin and neomycin (approximately 10% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus).
Marcin Weiner, Maria Kubajka, Krzysztof Szulowski, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska and Marek Lipiec
M., Rastawicki W.: Evaluation of usefulness for selected virulence markers for identifying pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. IV. Genes myfA and myfC and ureC. Med Dosw Mikrobiol 2002, 54, 347-355.
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Chun Xie, Yi-Xuan Hou, Yu-Ting Zhao, Xue-Hui Cai, Cai-Ying Li, Pei-Feng Li, Yun-Zhang Li, Xue Su, Xiu-Wei Yue, Shu-Jie Wang, Yong-Gang Liu, Wei-Jun Yang, Cong-Li Yuan, Li Cu, Xiu-Guo Hua and Zhi-Biao Yang
to increase susceptibility of piglets to challenge by Streptococcus suis type II. J Virol 2001, 75, 4889-4895.
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Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Izabella Dolka, Edyta Świętoń and Krzysztof Śmietanka
Haas N., Braber M., Römer-Oberdörfer A., van den Elzen P., van der Marel P.: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) marker vaccine: an immunodominant epitope on the nucleoprotein gene of NDV can be deleted or replaced by a foreign epitope. J Virol 2002, 76, 10138–10146.
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Marcin Weiner, Krzysztof Szulowski, Wojciech Iwaniak and Jolanta Złotnicka
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