isolate and there is no correlation between biofilm production and the source of the isolation and the virulence of the bacteria [ 26 ]. The role of biofilms in antimicrobial resistance in B. pseudomallei and possible drug-resistant mechanisms remains unclear. However, recent studies found that stimulation of B. pseudomallei to produce biofilms resulted in upregulation of some genes to be more resistant to antimicrobial agents [ 27 ].
The formation of B. pseudomallei biofilms is a multistep process that requires the participation of structural appendages such as
E. Villar-Luna, O. Goméz-Rodriguez, R. I. Rojas-Martínez and E. Zavaleta-Mejía
carrying dominant genes conferring resistance to the three major species of RKNs on tomato ( Mi-1 ), potato ( Mh ), soybeans (Mir1) and pepper (N and Tabasco) ( Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ). Meloidogyne enterolobii has been detected in Africa, Europe, USA, Central and South America ( Brito et al ., 2007 ; Moens et al., 2009 ; Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ); and recently was first reported in Mexico parasitizing watermelon (Veracruz state) and tomato plants (Sinaloa state) ( Ramirez-Suarez et al ., 2014 ; Martinez et al ., 2015 ); however, its presence in other crops
As a common clinical conditional pathogen, UPEC is also known as the molecular fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (CUP) [ 6 ], and 38 different CUP expression regions have been identified in the gene spectrum of E . coli . A single UPEC strain expresses 12 different fimbrial CUPs [ 7 ]. In a mouse model, type I pili was found to be necessary for supporting UPEC colonization, invasion, and maintenance of continuous infection in the bladder [ 8 ]. After type I pili binds with the FmH adhesion, glycated urinary plaque proteins and α1β3 integrins can be recognized in
, Piqueres P, Alonso JL, et al . Survival and viability of Helicobacter pylori after inoculation into chlorinated drinking water. Water Res, 2007, 41:3490-3496.
33 Samra ZQ, Javaid U, Ghafoor S, et al . PCR assay targeting virulencegenes of Helicobacter pylori isolated from drinking water and clinical samples in Lahore metropolitan, Pakistan. J Water Health, 2011, 9: 208-216.
34 Hulten K, Han SW, Enroth H, et al . Helicobacter pylori in the drinking water in Peru. Gastroenterology, 1996, 110:1031-1035.
35 Horiuchi T, Ohkusa T, Watanabe M, et al
D. Tumialis, M. Łopieńska, A. Mazurkiewicz, E. Pezowicz and I. Skrzecz
species with traditional method remains difficult and in many instances only the analysis of DNA sequences from species in question can provide an accurate identification ( Liu & Berry, 1995 ). Internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit (ITS1 – 5.8S –ITS2) are required to species identification and in phylogenetic studies ( Nguyen et al ., 2001 ; Stock et al ., 2001 ; Hominick, 2002 ; Spiridonow et al ., 2004 ). The ITS region gene sequences has also been used to study among- and intra-population variability of Steinernema
Rao Muhammad Abid Khan, Sana Anwar and Zaid Ahmed Pirzada
adults [ 4 , 7 ]. STSS was first reported in the late 1980s and has high mortality rate ranging from 30% to 70% [ 2 ]. NF, also called “flesh-eating” disease, is a disease of the deeper skin layers and tissues, while rheumatic fever is responsible for about half of all cardiovascular disease in India [ 8 ].
GAS possess a number of virulence factors including M protein, F protein, hyaluronic acid, lipoteichoic acid, and extracellular products, such as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins and erythrogenic toxins (Spe), Streptolysin S and O, C5a peptidase, DNases, and
27. Qiu J, Feng H, Lu J, Xiang H, Wang D, Dong J, Wang J, Wang X, Liu J, Deng X. Eugenol reduces the expression of virulence-related exoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010; 76(17):5846-51.
28. Di Pasqua R, Mamone G, Ferranti P, Ercolini D, Mauriello G. Changes in the proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson as stress adaptation to sublethal concentrations of thymol. Proteomics 2010; 10(5):1040-1049.
29. Carineiro De Barros J, Lucia da Conseição M, Gomes Neto NJ, Vieira da Costaa AK, Siqueira Júnior
Naraporn Somboonna, Ilada Choopara, Kanchapan Sukhonpan and Jarun Sayasathid
brief, persistent C. trachomatis expresses minimal gene transcription and translation, which is a target for doxycycline and tetracycline [ 8 , 10 , 11 ]. Importantly, persistent C. trachomatis infection can last for several years in the female urogenital tract [ 6 - 8 ].
An outer membrane protein A gene ( ompA ) encodes the major outer membrane and ompA sequencing represents an established method to categorize C. trachomatis into 19 serovars. These are A to C, including Ba, which cause trachoma, D to K including Da, which cause noninvasive urogenital
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