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Mateusz Cudo

Germany, Italy and Spain they are small administrative units, like urban communes (in Germany they are called Stadtgemeinde ), with a population threshold of 10,000 in Italy and Spain. By contrast, Poland, Russia and Ukraine define these as incorporated municipalities that are distinct from non-municipal territory, and in Russia the required population is between 20,000 and 50,000 ( Gunko 2014 ). In Germany, there is also no equivalent of the so-called “dwarf city” category (Zwergstadt or Landstadt), for a class of small towns with fewer than 5,000 residents

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Barbara Konecka-Szydłowska, Elżbieta Zuzańska-Żyśko and Robert Szmytkie

, Opole: Uniwersytet Opolski, pp. 113-127. Konecka-Szydłowska, B. 2008: Zmiany w strukturze usług małych miast Wielkopolski. In: Dominiak, J. editor, Przemiany w sferze usług w Polsce , Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, pp. 129-144. Konecka-Szydłowska, B. and Weltrowska, J. 2006: Population changes in the towns of Wielkopolska voivodship. In: Szymańska, D. and Grzelak-Kostulska, E. editors, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series , Toruń: Nicolaus Copernicus University Press, No. 5, pp. 21

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Jukka Jokimäki, Jukka Suhonen and Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki

., Suhonen, J., Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, M.-L. & Carbó-Ramirez, P. (2016) Effects of urbanization on breeding birds in European towns: Impacts of species traits. Urban Ecosystems, 19, 1565- 1577. Leveau, L.M. (2013) Bird traits in urban–rural gradients: how many functional groups are there? Journal of Ornithology, 154, 655–662. Magurran, A.E. (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurements. Princeton University Press, NJ. Marzluff, J.M. (2001) Worldwide urbanization and its effects on birds. In J.M. Marzluff, J.M. Bowman & Donell, M. (Eds.), Avian Ecology and Conservation

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Yonas Seifu and Jan Záhořík

. DAMTE, A. (1993): Urbanization in Ethiopia; Pre and Post Revolution Experience . Ph.D. thesis, Madison: University of Wisconsin. DONHAM, D. – JAMES, W. (eds.) (2002): The Southern Marches of Imperial Ethiopia . Oxford: James Currey, pp. 196-217. FULE, G. (1985): The Kingdom of JanJero: A Historical Survey to 1894 . B.A. thesis. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University. GARRETSON, P. P. (2002): Vicious cycles: ivory, slaves, and arms on the new Maji frontier. In GEMEDA, G. (1989): “An Outline of the Early History of Jimma Town”. In Proceedings of

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Barbara Konecka-Szydłowska

). System miast województwa wielkopolskiego (pp. 9-20). In Czyż, T., ed., Regionalny wymiar województwa wielkopolskiego. Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University. [22] Konecka-Szydłowska, B. (2011). Małe miasta nowo utworzone w procesie urbanizacji (pp. 9-25). In Bartosiewicz, B. & Marszał, T., ed., Przemiany przestrzeni i potencjału małych miast w wybranych regionach Polski-z perspektywy 20 lat transformacji, Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego. [23] Konecka-Szydłowska, B. (2014). Socio-economic situation of small towns of the Poznań

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Agnieszka Kwiatek-Sołtys and Helene Mainet

. Indlay A., Rogerson R., 1993. Migration, places and quality of life: voting with their feet? In: Champion T. (ed.), Population matters: The local dimension. Paul Chapman, London: 33-49. Konecka-Szydłowska B., Hauke J., 2012. Small towns as local growth poles in the Wielkopolska region: a dynamic approach. In: Macias A. (ed.), Geographical and Geological Center of Poznań. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Geographical and Geological Science, Poznań. CD-Edition. Kwiatek-Sołtys A., 2004. Małe miasta województwa małopolskiego

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Bernadett Makkai, Éva Máté, Gábor Pirisi and András Trócsányi

References [1] Alston, M. (2004). ‘“You don”t want to be a check-out chick all your life’: the out-migration of young people from Australia’s small rural towns’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, The, 39(3), 299-313. Doi: 10.1002/j.1839-4655.2004.tb01178.x. [2] Beluszky, P. (1999). Magyarország településföldrajza. Budapest - Pécs: Dialóg Campus. [3] Besser, T. L. (2009). Changes in small town social capital and civic engagement, Journal of Rural Studies, 25(2), pp. 185-193. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2008

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Maria Górska-Zabielska and Ryszard Zabielski

legitimacy in the European civilization) . Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań (in Polish). Skwara M., 2002. Pruszków. Nasze miasto (Pruszków. Our town) . Wyd. Powiatowa i Miejska Biblioteka Publiczna im. H. Sienkiewicza w Pruszkowie (in Polish). Słomka T., Kicińska-Świderska A., 2004. Geoturystyka – podstawowe pojęcia (Geotourism – basic concepts. Geoturystyka 1(1): 5–7 (in Polish). Tomczak E., 2007. Starożytne centrum metalurgiczne koło Warszawy. Zagadnienia dyskusyjne (Ancient metallurgical center near Warsaw. Discussion

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Zoltán Birkner, Tivadar Máhr, Erzsébet Péter and Nora Rodek Berkes

cooperation - an example of the Pannon City Association . (In Hungarian: A települési együttműködések elmélete és gyakorlata – a Pannon Városok Szövetségének példája .) iASK KRAFT Books, Institute of Higher Education (In Hungarian: Felsőbbfokú Tanumányok Intézete ), 2017, pp. 39, 146. ESPON TOWN (2013). Small and medium sized towns in their functional territorial context . Scientific Report. ESPON & KU Leuven. Foray, D. (2015). Smart specialisation opportunities and challenges for regional innovation policy . Routledge. Gál, Z. (2013). Policy

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Waldemar Cudny

References Bundesministerium des Innern, 2008, Verfassungsschutzbericht, report from the internet website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany: www.verfassungsschutz.de/de/publikationen/verfassungsschutzbericht/ Colditz - eine Stadt mit Tradition, 2006: Nordhorn: BVB - Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, p. 24. Colditz. Stadterneuerung im Sanierungsgebiet Altstadt, materials from Colditz Town Council. Die Bundesregierung, 20 Jahre