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Wit B., Piechaczek H., Błachnio D., Buśko K., 1998. Comparative assessment of selected body components from bioelectrical impedance or skinfold measurements.
Biol Sport 15(4):205-10.
Viviani F, Baldin F. 1993. The somatotype of “amateur” Italian female volleyball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 33(4):400-4.
Marzena Malara, Joanna Tkaczyk, Anna Kęska, Grażyna Lutosławska and Krzysztof Mazurek
12. Dermience M., Lognay G., Mathieu F., Goyens P. (2015) Effects of thirty elements on bone metabolism. J. Trace. Elem. Med. Biol., 32: 86-106.
13. Durnin J.V., Womersley J. (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thick¬ness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br. J. Nutr., 32: 77-97.
14. Grygiel-Górniak B., Tomczak A., Krulikowska N., Przysławski J., Seraszek-Jaros A., Kaczmarek E. (2016) Physical activity, nutritional status, and dietary habits of students of a
Simona Cernea, Ciprian Blendea, Andrada Larisa Roiban and Theodora Benedek
lucru utilizate. Available at: https://www.synevo.ro/colesterol-ldl/
12. Laborator Synevo. Referintele specifice tehnologiei de lucru utilizate. Available at: https://www.synevo.ro/creatinina-serica/
13. Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration). A New Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate. Ann Intern Med . 2009;150:604-612.
14. Durnin J, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from
Xabier Artetxe-Gezuraga, Sara Maldonado-Martín, Bret G. Freemye and Jesús Cámara
competitive season, and 2) to determine the relationship between GE and V̇O 2max in young elite cyclists.
The present investigation is an observational study in which cyclists (n = 15) completed two laboratory-based progressive exercise tests during the competition phase (T1 = April; T2 = July) to assess selected physiological variables.
Fifteen male road U23 cyclists (20.1 ± 1.4 yrs, 177.5 ± 5.7 cm, 68.3 ± 6.2 kg, 45.2 ± 7.5 mm of six skinfolds), with a mean of two years of competitive experience at the national elite level (15 years), were
Valéria do Valle, Danielli de Mello, Marcos de Sá Fortes and Estélio Dantas
Effects of indoor cycling associated with diet on body composition and serum lipids
Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women.
Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 ± 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at various loads, 3 sessions weekly, every session lasting 45 min, combined with restricted diet (about 1200 kcal daily) for 12 weeks. The following variables were recorded: body height and mass, BMI, relative body fat content (from 7 skinfolds), fat-free mass, triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL).
Results: Significant increase in HDL and significant decreases in all other variables (except body height) were noted only in the experimental group.
Conclusions: Indoor cycling associated with restricted diet is an excellent option in controlling obesity and serum lipids.
Man Lidia, Pitea Ana Maria, Chinceșan Mihaela Ioana, Man A, Mărginean Oana and Baghiu Maria Despina
Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric and biochemical status of children with nutritional deficiency. Methods: We have conducted a prospective study on 226 children admitted in Pediatric Clinic I, divided into two groups: one group of 49 children with nutritional deficiency (body-mass-index < -2SD) and one control group (177 children). We have followed demographic data, anthropometric indices evaluated as standard deviations (weight, height, middle upper-arm circumference, tricipital skinfold), biochemical proteic status (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 IGF-1, albumin, total proteins). We also followed parameters of general nutritional biochemistry. Results: The mean age for underweight children was 5.8 years, lower than in the control group. The weight of the nutritional-deficient group was significantly lower than in the control group, unlike the height (p <0.001). We have also found significant differences in body-mass-index, middle upper-arm circumference and tricipital skinfold, all of them with low SDs in children with nutritional deficiency. Regarding the biochemical markers, we have found significantly higher values of transaminases (p <0.001) and lower IGF-1 (p = 0.02) and total proteins (p = 0.013) in nutritional-deficient group. Most IGF-1 values were in normal range in both groups, but with a higher percent of low values in nutritional deficient children (37.5% vs 14.2%, p = 0.0046). There were no significant differences in height, albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels between the two groups. Conclusions: The anthropometric measurements are the most precise methods in evaluating the nutritional status. Among the studied biochemical markers, IGF-1, total proteins and transaminases are correlated with nutritional deficiencies
Miran Kondrič, Ognjen Uljević, Goran Gabrilo, Dean Kontić and Damir Sekulić
General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players
The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players.
The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world's best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4×50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN).
ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4×50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN.
Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position.
Julia Pápai, Zsófia Tróznai, Tamás Szabó and Attila Szabó
The study focused on the peculiarities of fat accumulation during maturation. The main purpose of the study was trifold: to detect the alterations in fat gain during breast maturation; to examine fat accumulation after physiological maturation and the influence of breast maturation and sport activity on fatness. The subjects were athlete (N=1428) and non-athlete (N=1030) girls. They were grouped by the stages of breast development. Fat accumulation was followed up until four years after menarche. Regional fat distribution was examined on the basis of skinfolds taken at triceps, scapula, abdomen and thigh. Progressing with breast development, body fat percent increased in both groups, though in non-athletes a decrease was found in stage B4. During sexual maturation the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased on the extremities and increased on the trunk. Non-athletes stored more fat on their upper trunk, while athletes did it on their lower trunk. After menarche the differences between athlete and non-athlete girls were preserved. In conclusion it may be stated that during sexual maturation the regional apposition trend of body fat was similar for athletes and non-athletes. The differences emerged in the relative distributions. Athlete girls accumulated proportionally more fat on their lower body, representing better the female-type distribution of body fat than non-athlete girls.
Paweł Tomaszewski, Jan Gajewski and Joanna Lewandowska
Somatic Profile of Competitive Sport Climbers
Since rock climbing grows in popularity, the number of the respective scientific reports increases. However, those concerning anthropometric profile of elite climbers are scarce and inconsistent, thus the aim of the study was to describe the anthropometric characteristics of competitive sport climbers. Male rock climbers (n = 21) aged 17 - 29 years took part in the study; their climbing ability ranged from 6b to 8c in the French scale. Body height, body mass, arm span, length and girths of both extremities, shoulder and pelvis widths, as well as thickness of 5 skinfolds were determined. From these, body mass index (BMI), body fat content and selected anthropometric indices were calculated. Data collected for climbers were compared with those of untrained students (n = 165) of Warsaw Technical University. Although no between-group differences were found for body height, body mass, BMI or body fat content, the climbers exhibited significantly (p<0.001) lower pelvis-to-shoulder ratio, longer lower extremities (p<0.05), and greater arm length and arm span (p<0.001) compared to untrained students. The results of this study do not support the view that climbers are small in stature and of low body mass. It seems that the core of the issue is not in body size but rather in specific body proportions and this may be of great importance in selecting subjects to competitive sport climbing.
Carlos Lago-Peñas, Ezequiel Rey, Luis Casáis and Maite Gómez-López
The purpose of this study was to establish the anthropometric and physical profiles of elite young soccer players according to their playing position, and to determine their relevance for the selection process. One hundred and fifty-six young male soccer players participated in the study. Players were classified into the following groups: Goalkeepers (n=16), Central Defenders (n=26), External Defenders (n=29), Central Midfielders (n=34), External Midfielders (n=28), and Forwards (n=23). Anthropometric variables of participants (body height, body mass, body mass index, 6 skinfolds, 4 diameters, and 3 perimeters) were measured. Participants performed the Yo-Yo test, sprint tests (30 m flat sprint and Balsom agility test) and 2 jump tests (countermovement jump and the Abalakov test). At the end of the season, the technical staff of the club selected some of the players to continue playing on the same team and the rest were not selected. The results show that heavier and taller outfield players performed better in vertical jumps and sprint tests, whereas leaner outfield players performed better in the Yo-Yo test. Fat percentage of selected players was lower than that of the non-selected ones. The rest of the body components were similar in the selected and non-selected players within each playing position. Moreover, the selected players performed slightly better than the non-selected players in the physical test, but these differences were not statistically significant.