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A Logical Conceptualization of Knowledge on the Notion of Language Communication

. (eds.), 7–22. Montague, R. (1970a). ‘Pragmatics and Intensional Logic’, Synthese 22, 68–94. Montague, R. (1970b). ‘English as a Formal Language’, in: Visentini B. et al. (eds.), Linguaggi nella Societa e nella Technica , Edizioni di Comunita, Milan, pp. 189–224. Montague R. (1970c). ‘Universal Grammar’, Theoria 36, 373–398. Montague R. (1974). Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers , ed. and introd. Thomason R.H., New Haven, Conn,: Yale University Press. Peirce S.Ch. (1931–35). Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce , Hartshorne C

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Sport beyond Moral Good and Evil

Abstract

Sport is - and should be - an amoral phenomenon (what should not be confused with an immoral one); that is, a phenomenon which is completely independent from ethics, except of, possibly, deontological ethics which concerns professionals who have professional obligations towards their employers and other persons who are provided with and influenced by their services.

Conduct according to rules of a given sport has no moral character. It has only pragmatic character, similarly as conduct in compliance with principles of the administrative code, the civil code or the penal code. Of course, when you act in accordance with rules of sports rivalry you can additionally realize also other aims - like, for example, aesthetic, spectacular or moral ones. However, in each case rules of the game and legal norms have priority, because they are the most important regulative determinant of conduct in various societies, including variously defined human teams. The abovementioned legal and sports regulations are not moral norms. They can, however, influence moral behaviours if they are in conflict with the law or rules of the game.

From that viewpoint moral norms are exterritorial in their relation to assumptions and rules of a particular sport. Contestants and people responsible for them - like, for example, coaches or sports officials - as well as their employers are neither required to account for their moral beliefs, nor for their moral behaviours, if only they act in compliance with rules of sports rivalry.

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Some linguistic and pragmatic considerations affecting science reporting in English by non-native speakers of the language

Abstract

Approximately 50% of publications in English peer reviewed journals are contributed by non-native speakers (NNS) of the language. Basic thought processes are considered to be universal yet there are differences in thought patterns and particularly in discourse management of writers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The study highlights some areas of potential incompatibility in native and NNS processing of English scientific papers. Principles and conventions in generating academic discourse are considered in terms of frequently occurring failures of NNS to meet expectations of editors, reviewers, and readers. Major problem areas concern organization and flow of information, principles of cohesion and clarity, cultural constraints, especially those of politeness and negotiability of ideas, and the complicated area of English modality pragmatics. The aim of the paper is to sensitize NN authors of English academic reports to problem areas of discourse processing which are stumbling blocks, often affecting acceptance of manuscripts. The problems discussed are essential for acquiring pragmalinguistic and sociocultural competence in producing effective communication.

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Does the Frequency of Using Emoticons in Computer-Mediated Communication Signal Creativity?

Abstract

Nowadays many human interactions take place in the virtual environment. To express emotions and attitudes in computer-mediated communication (CMC) individuals use emoticons - graphic representations of emotions and ideas. Contemporary applications serving computer-mediated communication (CMC) are provided with a broad spectrum of emoticons which may be used in communication. Variety of emoticons gives users of CMC an opportunity to create unique messages and express emotions in a creative manner. This study involved 275 online respondents and aimed to verify whether the frequency of emoticons use may be predicted by the three characteristics of creativity (creative abilities, openness, independence). Bayesian regression analysis showed that creativity does not predict frequency of emoticons use in CMC. No correspondence between creativity and frequency of emoticons use may be explained by pragmatic function of emoticons as they are used to communicate efficiently with an emphasis on the sender-recipient shared understanding of the emoticons meaning. What is more, robust popularity of communication applications leads to widespread employment of emoticons by CMC users. Therefore, with growing number of emoticons users’ creative individuals may seek less common means of expressing own creativity.

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The Analysis and Assesstment of International Capital Flows in the Form of Foreign Direct Investments and Foreign Direct Divestments: The Cases of Latvia and Poland

Abstract

Decisions to invest, withdraw, or transfer capital in different foreign markets have become a fixed part of management pragmatics in contemporary companies. The results of the 2017 Global Corporate Divestment Study show that multinational enterprises (MNEs) from particular parts of the world tend to see the main reasons behind their decisions on FDI (foreign direct investment) and FD (foreign direct divestment) in a slightly different manner. Insofar as internationalization processes and FDI have been relatively thoroughly studied and discussed in world and Polish literature, the concept of de-internationalization pursued through the prism of divestment still requires further analysis and consideration. The article aims to present the general framework of the process involving FDI, FD, and the major factors behind it in Poland and Latvia. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with the analysis of statistical data coming from the UNCTAD database as well as the database of Poland’s and Latvia’s central banks, illustrating foreign investment flows. The article uses the method of critical analysis of world and Polish literature, analysis of reports on relevant issues, and desk research analysis.

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Multilingualism in Audiovisual Texts for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Audience

). Translating popular film. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Pym, A. (2004). On the Pragmatics of Translating Multilingual Texts. In. JoSTrans-The Joournal of Specialised Translation 1 (2004). Eb. 1 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.jostran.org/issue01/art_pym.php Stratford, M. (2008). Au tour de Babel! Les défis multiples du multilinguisme. In: Journal des traducteurs, 53(3), pp. 457-70. Szarkowska, A. Żbikowska, J. & Krejtz, I. (2013) “Subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing in multilingual films” in International

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Function of vagueness in politically oriented speeches

. Morgan. New York: Academic Press 1975, Vol. 3, s. 41 – 58. GRUBER, Helmut: Political language and textual vagueness. Pragmatics: 3.1, 1993, s. 1 – 8. International pragmatics association. HIRSCHOVÁ, Milada: Netypické případy užití ukazovacích výrazů takový, tak. In: Naše řeč, 1988, roč. 71, č. 2, s. 57 – 61. HIRSCHOVÁ, Milada: Pragmatika v češtině. Univerzita Palackého. Filozofická fakulta: Olomouc 2006, s. 139 – 140. HLADKÁ, Zdeňka: Lexém. In: CzechEncy – Nový encyklopedický slovník češtiny. Eds. P. Karlík – M. Nekula – J. Pleskalová, 2017

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Thorns and Flowers of Teaching English Literary Criticism to the Speakers of Persian as a Globally Less Widely Taught Language: a Case of MA Students of Translation Studies in Iran

Summary

The main aim of this study is to probe into major impediments in teaching literary criticism to the Persian speaking Iranian students of translation studies and to argue in which ways teaching literary criticism may be a successful undertaking in the educational establishments in globally less widely taught and learnt languages like Persian. For this purpose, following a mandatory literary criticism course, 35 male and 65 female graduate students from Fars and Isfahan universities were selected through convenience sampling and encouraged to fill in “record-of-work” forms, including reflection on learning strategies as well as their personal experiences and impressions. Next, to triangulate the results, fifty participants were selected to partake in semi-structured interviews, and findings were sorted and content analyzed based on Oxford’s (1990) dimensions of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and the tenets of grounded theory. It was revealed that there exist major defects with the current socio-pragmatic and pedagogical status of teaching literary criticism to the Iranian MA students and educational gaps are typically ascribed to the learners’ cultural conditions in Iranian EFL context. Results can hopefully provide EFL teachers with ways to recover defects in teaching literary criticism in less widely taught and learnt languages and provide learners with immediate feedback to meet cultural requirements in doing literary criticism.

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Patient and Sample Identification. Out of the Maze?

Summary

Background: Patient and sample misidentification may cause significant harm or discomfort to the patients, especially when incorrect data is used for performing specific healthcare activities. It is hence obvious that efficient and quality care can only start from accurate patient identification. There are many opportunities for misidentification in healthcare and laboratory medicine, including homonymy, incorrect patient registration, reliance on wrong patient data, mistakes in order entry, collection of biological specimens from wrong patients, inappropriate sample labeling and inaccurate entry or erroneous transmission of test results through the laboratory information system. Many ongoing efforts are made to prevent this important healthcare problem, entailing streamlined strategies for identifying patients throughout the healthcare industry by means of traditional and innovative identifiers, as well as using technologic tools that may enhance both the quality and efficiency of blood tubes labeling. The aim of this article is to provide an overview about the liability of identification errors in healthcare, thus providing a pragmatic approach for diverging the so-called patient identification crisis.

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Key Factors of Influence in the Public Procurement Process

Abstract

Public procurement is an important part of any economy, regardless of the geographical location, political orientation or level of development. Therefore, they can be considered as a separate part, but not insignificant, of the business of a functioning market economy. Moreover, they benefit from its own law, including the global economic agreements governing commercial transactions of this type. One of the most important goals of the activities of public institutions is to “deliver” to the taxpayer (in this sphere of beneficiaries of public services are included both individuals and legal entities) services of a quality as high as possible, trying to satisfy their requirements. With a strategic-military background in a rapidly changing context, institutions that are part of the national defense system, public order and national security, are faced today, seemingly more than ever with challenges increasingly vocal expressed, to supply services of personal security at a level and a quality that generates peace and calm of everyday life. We therefore believe that a pragmatic and realistic approach is required to procurement in military organizations, aiming goals and measuring results in a clear and precise manner.

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