superstructure rigidity also, the effects generated by vehicles are considerably reduced [ 2 ]. The range of the action of loads situated on the embankment, i.e. outside the shell, usually amounts to the shell’s span length L .
Investigations of soil–steel structures under a load moving on the roadway usually involve dynamic testing, e.g. Bęben [ 3 ] and Mellat et al. [ 4 ]. Moreover, static testing plays an important role in determining the mechanics of structures such as shells sunk in the soil medium, as shown previously [ 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. The
stress dependency is used. The complete theory of the model, implemented in the ZSoil software, with all introduced modifications, can be found in the detailed report written by Obrzud and Truty [ 10 ]. It has to be emphasised here that most of the HS model parameters have clear physical interpretations, and model calibration can be made using standard triaxial consolidated drained (CD) or consolidated undrained (CU) test, including shear wave velocity measurement, and oedometer test. The latter one is
observed when conducting the surveying measurements of shell deformations. The zone in which the curvature radius changes from R to R n and the shell support segment are not included in the diagrams, since the results there are disturbed due to the complex mode of support (intermediate between pin and fixed support). [ 9 ]
4 Test soil-steel bridge in Rydzyna
The results of measurements carried out on the soil-steel bridge in Rydzyna [ 3 , 9 ] by means of electrical resistance strain gauges are presented here as an example. [ 3 ] The structure has a record
related to the search algorithm. Building blocks of the calibration system are briefly described in this paper.
The objective methods of parameter calibration are usually based on inverse analysis. The general assumption here is that the estimation should lead to the maximum possible imitation of the experiment by the calibrated model. With the use of inverse methods, the obtained parameters values would, in general, have rather ‘effective’ than ‘physical’ meaning. This is because of the maximal correspondence between the experiment and the
parameters [ 21 ].
4.1 Measuring set-up for testing gas filtration in briquettes
To understand the filtration and sorption processes accompanying the propagation of pressure waves in coal that is saturated with gas, it is necessary to measure the time and space distributions of the physical quantities that determine the course of the phenomenon. A set-up created especially for this purpose ( Fig. 7 ) (its detailed description is presented in a previous paper [ 22 ]) makes it possible to measure the pressure in the macropores of coal samples and the temperature of its
Janina Zaczek-Peplinska and Katarzyna Osińska-Skotak
parameters (Leica C10 – 532 nm (green) laser, pulsing, Z+F 5006h – infrared laser, phasing and thermal images of the object).
Proposed methodology of survey data handling was used for Ecker Dam concrete surface condition assessment in 2013–2014. That article presents the results of surveys and analysis performed for Ecker Dam during the first control period. The part of the recommendation had been implemented in 2015–2016.
The test object is concrete-gravity water dam Ecker Dam ( figure 1 ), located in the Harz Mountains (Germany). The concrete dam on
In soil and rock mechanics, the Mohr-Coulomb (MC) shear strength criterion, along with its parameters, namely friction angle and cohesion, is treated as a kind of standard and reference concept for other shear strength criteria. This is due to the fact, that it fits well the experimental data, where asymmetric strength response in triaxial compression (TXC) and triaxial extension (TXE) tests is observed. Moreover, the MC criterion parameters have clear engineering interpretation and they are typically obtained in most geotechnical
Iman Faridmehr, Mohammad Reza YazdaniPour, Mohammad Javadi Jokar and Togay Ozbakkaloglu
cemented, different options were investigated regarding the sealing of its foundation in the preliminary study phase. At the beginning of the design of the Karkheh Dam and Hydropower Plant Project, curtain injection was suggested to control the foundation seepage below the dam. 1 However, after thorough on-site injection tests
and extensive financial studies, implementation of a cutoff wall was considered as another option for sealing of the dam foundation. The reason for the selection of this approach was the slow implementation of the project using the “curtain
Nabil Manchar, Chaouki Benabbas, Riheb Hadji, Foued Bouaicha and Florina Grecu
LSMs for a: IV, b: WoE, and c: FR. d: ROC curves of the three used models.
3.3 Validation procedure
In order to test the compatibility of the models and to determine their prediction ability, the AUC (success and prediction rates) was plotted. The prediction