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Juan Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, Michael Rogers, Victor Tella, Juan Benavent and Estelio Dantas

. Dishman, R. K., Washburn, R. A., and Heath, G. W. (2004). Physical Activity Epidemiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Dixon, C. B., Deitrick, R. W., Pierce, J. R., Cutrufello, P. T., and Drapeau, L. L. (2005). Evaluation of the BOD POD and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating percent body fat in national collegiate athletic association division III collegiate wrestlers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength and Conditioning Association, 19 (1), 85-91. Elliott, K

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Iker J. Bautista, Ignacio J. Chirosa, Joseph E. Robinson, Roland van der Tillaar, Luis J. Chirosa and Isidoro Martínez Martín

performance capacity. This information could be of vital importance to measure the physical state of a player before a training program compared with the rest of the players. A further use of a physical performance test is the identification of young talent. This line of research has generated many studies in different sports such as soccer ( Unnithan et al., 2012 ; Votteler and Höner, 2013 ; William and Reilly, 2000 ), handball ( Baker et al., 2013 ; Lidor et al., 2005 ; Mohamed et al., 2009 ), basketball ( Hoare, 2000 ) or rugby ( Gabbett, 2006 , 2011 ) in which the

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis and Jørgen Ingebrigtsen

References Adam C, Klissouras V, Ravazzolo M, Renson R, Tuxworth W. The Eurofit Test of European Physical Fitness Tests. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 1988 Aragon-Vargas LF. Evaluation of four vertical jump tests: Methodology, reliability, validity, and accuracy. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci , 2000; 4: 215-228 Bar-Or O, Skinner JS. Wingate anaerobic test. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1996 Bencke J, Damsgaard R, Saekmose A, Jorgensen P, Jorgensen K, Klausen K. Anaerobic power and muscle

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Angelika Bara, Piotr Pluta and Arkadiusz Jeziorski


Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin (CUPO) is defined by the presence of metastatic lesions, diagnosed by means of cytological or pathological evaluation, for which no primary site can be detected during a thorough examination. The clinical investigation, directed at locating the site of the neoplastic lesion, is determined by the results of laboratory tests, imaging procedures, and pathological examinations. It is also essential to conduct a complete medical history and thorough physical examination. The detection of the primary site allowed to introduce specific therapy, which can offer clinical benefits, considering a favorable prognosis.

The aim of the study was to assess the range of diagnostic procedures performed in patients with CUPO and efficacy in identifying the primary lesion.

Material and methods. Retrospective analysis comprised a group of 29 patients with CUPO, operated between January, 2002 and December, 2011, at the Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University in Łódź. The study group comprised 16 male and 13 female patients; median age at presentation was 58.3 years (ranging between 30-79 years).

Results. Detailed diagnostic management depending on the location of metastatic lesions and their histological type was performed in 20 of the 29 study patients (69%). Considering the remaining 9 (31%) patients detailed diagnostics was not performed, due to the patients' poor general condition. In 55% (11/20) of patients subject to detailed diagnostics, the primary neoplastic lesion was determined.

Conclusions. Considering the study group, most patients with cancer of unknown primary origin were characterized by a favorable prognosis, which justified thorough diagnostics, in order to establish the primary neoplastic lesion. The introduction of diagnostic examinations enabled to identify the primary site of the tumor in more than 50% of patients. With the development of imaging methods one can expect improvement of unsatisfactory results, considering the detection of primary neoplastic foci.

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Jacek Huk, Witold Wiktor, Tomasz Pedowski, Wioletta Masiak and Grzegorz Wallner

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 16: 837-45. Numans ME, Lau L, de Wit NJ. et al. : Short-term treatment with proton-pump inhibitors as a test for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a metaanalysis of diagnostic test characteristic. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 518-27. Kahrilas PJ, Shaheen NS, Vaezi MF: American Gastroenterological Associacion Institute Technical Review on the Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 1392-13. Boparai V, Rajagopalan J, Triadafilopoulos G

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Ayda Karaca, Emine Caglar and Şükrü Cinemre

-619. Whaley M.H., Kaminsky L.A. Epidemiology of physical activity, physical fitness, and selected chronic diseases In J.L Roitman (Ed.), ACSM'S Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (pp 17-33). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philedelphia 2001.

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Miran Kondrič, Ognjen Uljević, Goran Gabrilo, Dean Kontić and Damir Sekulić

Positions. Journal of Human Kinetics , 2011;27: 31-44. Frenkl R, Meszaros J, Soliman YA, Mohacsi J. Body composition and peak aerobic power in male international level Hungarian athletes. ActaPhysiologicaHungarica , 2001;88(3-4): 251-258. Gurd B, Klentrou P. Physical and pubertal development in young male gymnasts. Journal of Applied Physiology , 2003;95(3): 1011-1015. Holloway KM, Meir RA, Brooks LO, Phillips CJ. The triple-120 meter shuttle test: a sport-specific test for assessing

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Anna Zwierzchowska

relationships and overall physical fitness tests of motor performance in children of younger and older school age [in Polish]. In: Kowalski P, Migasiewicz J. (eds.), Sport swimming and athletics at school [in Polish]. AWF, Wrocław 1999, 23-33. 10. Maszczak T., Somatic and motor parameters of deaf children in Poland [in Polish]. PZGł, Warszawa 1977. 11. Zwierzchowska A., Gawlik K., A Comparative study of motor abilities of deaf and hearing children. In: Plinta R., Kosińska M., Niebrój L. (eds.), Health Care: coping with disability. Eukrasia 9

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Ilker Yılmaz, Nevin Ergu, Ferman Konukman, Bulent Agbuğa, Erdal Zorba and Zafer Cimen

. William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd. Engelman M.E., Morrow J.R. Reliability and skinfold correlates for traditional and modified pull-ups in children grades 3-5. Res Q Exercise Sport , 1981. 62(1): 88-91. Erbaugh S.J. Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests Administered to Young Children. Percept Motor Skils , 1990. 71: 1123-1128. Fernhall B., Pitetti K.H. Leg strength related to endurance run performance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Pediatr Exerc Sci , 2000. 12: 324

Open access

Dariusz Lenart

. Hum Mov, 2011, 12 (2), 180-187, doi: 10.2478/v10038-011-0017-7. 6. Findley P.A., Sambamoorthi U., Preventive health services and lifestyle practices in cancer survivors: a population health investigation. J Cancer Surviv, 2009, 3 (1), 43-58, doi: 10.1007/s11764-008-0074-x. 7. Huang Y.-C., Malina R.M., Body mass index and individual physical fitness tests in Taiwanese youth aged 9-18 years. Int J Pediatr Obes, 2010, 5 (5), 404-411, doi: 10.3109/17477160903497902. 8. Malina R.M., Baxter-Jones A.D.G., Armstrong N., Beunen