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Continuous renal replacement therapy allows higher colistin dosing without increasing toxicity

References 1. Spapen HD, Jacobs R, Van Gorp V, Troubleyn J, Honoré PM. Renal and neurological side effects of colistin in critically ill patients. Ann Intensive Care 2011;1:14. 2. Bergen PJ, Li J, Rayner CR, Nation RL. Colistin methanesulfonate is an inactive prodrug of colistin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:1953-8. 3. Couet W, Grégoire N, Marchand S, Mimoz O. Colistin pharmacokinetics: The fog is lifting. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012;18:30-9. 4. Yahav D

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Vildagliptin in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

References 1. Nauck MA, Homberger E, Siegel EG et al. Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 63: 492-498, 1986. 2. Nauck MA, Stöckmann F, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (noninsulin- dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 29: 46-52, 1986. 3. Vildagliptin - summary of product characteristics, 2012. 4. He Y-L. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of

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The influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexaterelated toxicity and survival in children with non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma

. Association of genetic polymorphism in the folate metabolic pathway with methotrexate pharmacokinetics and toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and malignant lymphoma. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 67: 993-1006. 4. Erculj N, Kotnik BF, Debeljak M, Jazbec J, Dolzan V. Influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexate-related toxicity and survival in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 2012; 53: 1096-104. 5. Jazbec J, Kitanovski L, Aplenc R, Debeljak M, Dolzan V. No evidence of association of

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A comparison of short-term therapeutic efficacy between infliximab and tacrolimus for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis

. VOIOSU T, BENGUŞ A, BĂLĂNESCU P, DINU R, VOIOSU A, BĂICUŞ C et al. Rapid fecal calprotectin testing predicts mucosal healing better than C-reactive protein and Serum tumor necrosis factor α in patients with ulcerative colitis. Rom J Intern Med. 2015; 53(3):253-60. 18. DOTAN I, RON Y, YANAI H, BECKER S, FISHMAN S, YAHAV L et al. Patient factors that increase infliximab clearance and shorten half-life in inflammatory bowel disease: a population pharmacokinetic study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014; 20(12):2247-59. 19. BRANDSE JF, MATHÔT RA, VAN

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Direct acting anti-hepatitis C virus drugs: Clinical pharmacology and future direction

approved in combination with PegIFN-alpha and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in 2011. [7] However, these drugs have been reported to have several drug-drug interactions, and are largely replaced with newer DAA including Simeprevir, Paritaprevir, Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Ombitasvir, Sofosbuvir and Dasabuvir. Table 3 summarizes the pharmacokinetics of all approved DAA with special reference to the sites of drug-drug interaction. Clinical pharmacology of the newer DAA will be discussed in the next section. Table 3 Pharmacokinetics

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Novel Oral Anticoagulants, A Subject in Continuing Debate

, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and safety and efficacy in phase 1 subjects. AmJ Emerg Med. 2016;34(11S):26-32. 14. Choo WK, Fraser S, Padfield G et al. Dabigatran improves the efficiency of an elective direct current cardioversion service. Br J Cardiol 2014;21:29–32. 15. Cappato R, Ezekowitz MD, Klein AL et al. Rivaroxaban vs. vitamin K antagonists for cardioversion in atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(47):3346-55. 16. Sakabe M, Yoshioka R, Fujiki A. Low APTT and BMI predicts the occurrence of ischemic stroke in patients with Atrial Fibrillation

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Exenatide QW – New Perspectives 5 Years after its First Use

receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 19: 524-536, 2017. 7. Malone J, Trautmann M, Wilhelm K, Taylor K, Kendall DM. Exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 18:359-367, 2009. 8. Knop FK, Brønden A, Vilsbøll T. Exenatide: pharmacokinetics, clinical use, and future directions. Expert Opin Pharmacother 18: 555-571, 2017. 9. Abd El Aziz MS, Kahle M, Meier JJ, Nauck MA. A meta-analysis comparing clinical effects of short- or

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Multidisciplinarity in emergency and critical care medicine: Specific care is best care!

. Endocrinology in Intensive Care Medicine: New Insights and Therapeutic Consequences. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 2002;64:167-87. 16. Amer MR, Akhras NS, Mahmood WA, Al-Jazairi AS. Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Implementation in a medical intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 2013;33:547-54. 17. Honore PM, Jacobs R, Spapen HD. Impact of altered antimicrobial pharmacokinetics on antimicrobial dosing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Annu Update Intensive Care Emerg Med 2014;34 [In Press

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The frequency of bone fractures among patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: two-year follow-up

., AKITA W., KUYAMA T., TAKADA S., ASAI T., et al. Diagnostic usefulness of bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in predicting fracture in CKD stage 5D patients – a single-center cohort study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012; 27 :345-51. 27. LIN JH. Bisphosponates: a review of their pharmacokinetic properties . Bone. 1996; 18 (2):75-85. 28. CONTR P., GUARNERI V. Safety of intravenous and oral bisphosphonates and compliance with dosing regimen. The Oncologist.2004; 9 (Suppl 4): 28-37. 29. SHERRARD DJ., HERCZ G., PEI Y

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Long-term remission of a Her2/neu positive primary breast cancer under double monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab and bevacizumab

chemotherapy plus trastuzumab plus bevacizumab. Available at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00625898?term=BETH&rank=1 16. Lu JF, Bruno R, Eppler S, Novotny W, Lum B, Gaudreault J. Clinical pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008; 62: 779-86. 17. Kabbinavar F, Hurwitz HI, Fehrenbacher L, Meropol NJ, Novotny WF, Lieberman G, et al. Phase II, randomized trial comparing bevacizumab plus fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) with FU/LV alone in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J

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