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Zdeněk Vacek, Stanislav Vacek, Jiří Remeš, Igor Štefančík, Dan Bulušek and Lukáš Bílek

Abstract

The paper deals with the research of structure and dynamic development of stands in National Nature Reservation Trčkov, located in Protected Landscape Area Orlické Mts. (Czech Republic). The research was carried out in spruce-beech stand with admixed fir and sycamore maple. Two permanent research plots (PRP 1 and PRP 2), for each with area of 0.25 hectare were chosen as an object of our research. FieldMap technology was used for field measurement. Compared PRP were characterized by the same typological, soil, phytocenology and stand parameters, but different method of protection against game damage. Results showed that deer is considered to be limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The tree species proportion of natural regeneration occurred in PRP 1 with fencing was sufficient, contrary to PRP 2 (outside fencing) owing to site and stand conditions. The results of biometric measurements and predicted simulation by Sibyla growth simulator showed multi-layer stand structure and productive spruce-beech stands with interspersed fir and sycamore maple. We also found depleted phase of regeneration according to frequency and tree species proportion, as well as beginning of grow up stadium, especially related to fir and sycamore proportion and/or beech and spruce. It is concluded that growth visualization and simulation confirmed the hypothesis about long-term effect of game to species, spatial and age structure and development of concerned autochthonous population.

Open access

Ferenc Rádi

Abstract

This paper covers an analysis in the cross section of sword fencing and the field of analytical mechanics and computer analysis. It aims to get answer to following questions in case of a normal blow with a feder on another feder: where are critical cross section/sections, where is the biggest stress, might the feder maybe break or not?

To inspect this question a model for the feder was created in a reliable, realistic, simple and closed form. Modeling a single blow acceleration and speed state at the chosen time will be calculated. Based on this input data equations and conclusions from the analytical mechanics were applied, where D’Alamberts principle is used. Results will be validated by finite element computer aided modeling and also applied on specified real life cases.

Open access

Agata Kucharska and Stanisław Witold Kłopot

Abstract

The present study focuses on the issue of the achievement of stability in life by former amateur fencers in the context of post-communist Polish society. The main aim of the study was an analysis of non-sport spheres of life of former fencers, such as occupation, material situation, family life, and health. The sample consisted of 51 former Polish fencers. A diagnostic survey was conducted with the use of the questionnaire technique. It was revealed that the subjects successfully achieved social stability after they retired from sports. However, since they had been amateur athletes, they had been forced to choose appropriate strategies and actions during their sports careers to ensure professional, economic, and family stability in their future lives. Those who experienced difficulties in combining the role of athlete with other social roles were most often forced to give up fencing. The former fencers observe a multidirectional impact of sports on all aspects of their lives.

Open access

Attila Törcsvári

Abstract

Translation memories (TMs), as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT) tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available), and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

Open access

Julia Gräf

Abstract

Ms. I.33 is not only the oldest of the known fencing treatises in European context, it is also the only one showing a woman fighting equally with contemporary men. The author presents her research about the garments this female fencer wears, including her shirt, dress and overdress, hairstyle and footwear. Special consideration is given to the questions whether Walpurgis wears a belt, the length and hem circumference of her garments as well as the methods of draping them in the way depicted. The results of the analysis are compared with contemporary pictorial and archaeological sources of the early 14th century. Some personal insights gathered by the author while fighting in this kind of clothes shed light on the possibilities of moving without being disturbed by them. The clothes and hairstyle worn by Walpurgis, give clues about her social status and thus help to understand the context and dating of the whole manuscript.

Open access

Sladjana Mijatović

Summary

The previous studies on the gymnastic societies of the Principality and the Kingdom of Serbia did not seriously deal with the types of physical exercise practiced therein. It may be assumed that is due to a lack of the information preserved thereabout.

For these reasons, in this study we searched for the findings about the types of physical exercise applied in the private training schools where some skills (fencing, swimming, archery, horse riding) were learnt and practiced, then in the societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) as well as in the chivalrous societies. The aim of this study was to determine the types and forms of physical exercise practiced in the private training schools, societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) and chivalrous societies of the Principality and the Kingdom of Serbia. The historical method was applied in this paper.

In this paper, we presented the results, i.e. the types of physical exercise practiced in the private training schools (Schools of Fencing, Steva Todorović’s School of Painting, Askanius Sedlmayer’s School of Gymnastics), societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) and chivalrous societies (Belgrade Society for Gymnastics and Fighting, Belgrade Gymnastic Society “Sokol”, Civil Gymnastic Society “Dušan Silni”, Sokol societies).

Based on the comparative analysis of the types of the apparatuses used and the exercise methods applied it has been determined that private schools mainly implemented the Turner system using most of Jahn’s Turner apparatuses. However, in the societies for physical exercising, in addition to the Turner exercise method, the Swedish system of physical exercise was partially applied as well.

Upon the appearance and acceptance of the Sokol idea, the application of the Sokol training method also started in the established Sokol societies, and soon afterwards in the army, and primary and secondary schools as well.

Open access

Adam Kaliszewski

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present the results of a cost analysis for artificial and natural oak regeneration in selected forest districts in Poland. This research was conducted in six forest districts with a high share of natural oak regeneration, located in south-western and central Poland. Altogether 65 plots with artificial and 35 plots with natural regeneration were analysed based on the extent of silvicultural (weeding, blank-filling and pre-commercial thinning) and protective measures (chemical and mechanical wildlife damage control, fencing) performed on the regenerated areas for the six years following forest regeneration. An intensity ratio (i.e., a proportion of the area of measures to the area of forest regeneration) as well as the mean unit costs of the measures and mean costs of the measures per hectare of forest regeneration were calculated.

The results show that the total costs of silvicultural and protective measures in natural oak regeneration were considerably lower as compared to artificial regeneration. The cumulative average costs during 6 years (without costs of fencing) amounted to 1216 PLN/ ha and 6543 PLN/ha for natural and artificial regeneration respectively. Lower costs of natural oak regeneration resulted from the complete lack of expenditures on seedlings and planting, a considerably lower weeding intensity, scarce blank-filling, and the absence of mechanical wildlife damage control measures. Nonetheless, natural regeneration generated higher costs for pre-commercial thinning due to its higher intensity, earlier initiation, and higher unit costs compared to artificial regeneration, as well as chemical wildlife damage control measures, for which the unit costs were higher by over 50%. However, the higher costs of pre-commercial thinning and chemical control measures did not significantly affect the measurable financial benefits of natural regeneration.

In conclusion, the matter of financial viability of natural oak regeneration should be explored in more detail over longer time spans.

Open access

Dariusz Boguszewski, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Andrzej Ochal, Beata Kurkowska and Krzysztof Kamiński

Abstract

Introduction: A purpose of the work was diagnosis of chosen lifestyle elements of disabled athletes, compared to inactive disabled persons, characterized by similar kind and the degree of disability.

Material and methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted on 150 disabled persons (31 women; 119 men), from among 98 were active athletes (wheelchair fencing n=32; wheelchair rugby n=31; table tennis n=14; basketball n=9 and other disciplines n=12). Totally 52 inactive disabled persons were in a control group. Juczyński’s Inventory of Healthy Behavior (IHB - where health behaviors are being judged in four categories: eating habits, preventive behaviors, the psychological attitude and health practice) and an author's questionnaire about lifestyle were used as a research tool.

Results: Results show that physically active persons are paying the greater attention to healthy lifestyle than non-active. The total rate of health behaviors (HBR) was higher in the group of athletes (p=0.071). The biggest differences (p=0.000) were noted in eating habits and the smallest in preventive behaviors (p=0.408). Disabled athletes more easily cope with typical problems of the everyday life (like architectural barriers, social isolation). Also they have more often undertake paid work and take part in other fields (culture, tourism).

Conclusions: During examination a positive effect of the practicing sport on health behaviors, the frame of mind, self-assessment and participation in the social and professional life was proved. So it seems reasonable to promote sport and physical activity among disables people.

Open access

Zdeněk Vacek

Abstract

Knowledge of the structure and dynamics of near-natural mixed forests is a key factor for ecologically oriented management of forest ecosystems. The development of these model forests mostly takes place continually without any pronounced disturbances. Natural regeneration can be locally limited by ungulate browsing. The paper was focused on the structure and development of forest stands with emphasis on natural regeneration in relation to ungulates in Černý důl Nature Reserve and Trčkov National Nature Reserve situated in the Orlické hory Mts., Czech Republic. The case study was conducted in a spruce-beech-fir forest stand on four permanent research plots (PRP) of 0.25 ha in size. PRP are situated in the same stand and in comparable site and stand conditions, but two PRP has been protected against game by fencing since 1985-1989. The stand volume ranged from 478 to 565 m3 ha−1 in age 143 - 156 year. The results showed that the diversity of tree layer was higher by 19.8% (48.0% in species richness) in the stands protected by fence. In the phase of natural regeneration, the species composition, stand structure and number of recruits were poorer on unfenced PRP (7,990 recruits ha−1) compared to fenced PRP (13,160 recruits ha−1). Admixed silver fir and rowan were completely eliminated by browsing (to 94 - 100% of individuals). Growth analyses statistically confirmed that ungulates were a significant limiting factor for successful forest development (P < 0.001).

Open access

Mirosław Mikicin

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine work performance in the aspect of work rate, energy, persistence, adaptation rate, and accuracy based on the indices of an athlete’s work curve.

Material and methods: Thirty athletes (15 women and 15 men) who practised five sports (swimming, track and field, fencing, judo, and taekwondo) and a control group (30 university students, 15 women and 15 men) participated in a work curve test (Kraepelin). Both groups were equivalent. They were aged 18–25 years, all of them had finished secondary education, and studied at the same university. The analysis concerned indices grouped into 6 factors: quantitative measures of performance, measures of energy and persistence, measures of quick adaptation and efforts without self-restraint, measures of variability, measures of accuracy and diligence, and measures of additional factors.

Results: Factor analysis of the work curve revealed a significant difference to the benefit of the athletes (p < 0.001) in the measures of energy and persistence. The results obtained in this study revealed good adaptation of athletes to exercise, resistance to fatigue, and quick process of learning.

Conclusions: The results obtained may reflect the adaptation of athletes to long-term physical activity. Therefore, they are characterized by greater involvement and patience. Therefore, it can be concluded that monotonous training that necessitates much energy, concentration of attention, and endurance, and, consequently, high work performance, is one of the most important predictors of athletic activity.