The Bistrita city bypass crosses obliquely at km 14+162 the Bistrita river and a local road. In the area where the bridge is situated the river has a width of about 50.00m and the local road has 5.00m, being located at 12.00m from the bank of Bistrita. The bridge should provide a roadway that is 7.80m wide and two sidewalks of 1.50m.
The challenge is to design a bridge that allows the crossing of the two barriers (the river and the local road) in the most efficient way possible from an economical point of view, but in such a way that both the geometrical constraints and the design requirements contained in the family of the European standards Eurocodes are respected.
In order to achieve this goal, the author has investigated the design situation by comparing different possible technical solutions, by conducting a series of parametric studies and by utilizing mathematical optimization techniques.
Following these investigations a 100.00m long bridge resulted. The superstructure is a continuous beam with three spans: 20.00m + 60.00m + 20.00m and consists of a composite steel - concrete deck. The deck cross section is composed of two steel beams with variable height and a reinforced concrete slab disposed on top. This configuration of the superstructure leads to the development of negative reaction forces in the bearings located at the end points of the deck.
The study has covered 8 key steps as follows:
- Establishing the technical solution.
- Establishing the number and the length of the spans.
- Setting the static scheme.
- Determining the optimal cross section of the steel beams.
- Setting longitudinal beam geometry.
- Establishing the number of beams in the cross section.
- Determining the optimal mounting order of the concrete slabs.
- Establishing the optimal type and distribution of the bearing devices.
Özgür Didrickson, Jno Didrickson and Przemysław Busse
Autumn Migration Dynamics, Body Mass, Fat Load and Stopover Behaviour of the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) at Manyas KuşcennetI National Park (NW Turkey)
Turkey is located on one of the major migratory routes between Palearctic and Afrotropical regions. Despite its importance for many species, few studies exist on bird migration over Turkey. In this study, autumn migration dynamics and stopover behaviour of the Willow Warbler, a passage migrant in Turkey, was documented and analysed at Manyas Kuşcenneti National Park (NW Turkey). Birds were mist-netted, ringed, measured, weighed and fat scored from mid-August in 2002 and end of August in 2003 to end of October in both years. Totally, 543 and 929 Willow Warblers were ringed in 2002 and 2003, respectively. For 2002 and 2003 respectively, fat score values (mean ± SE) were 4.63 ± 0.06 and 3.84 ± 0.05, while body mass reached 11.38 ± 0.07 and 10.37 ± 0.05 g for birds captured for the first time. Fat scores in 2003 showed a bimodal distribution with peaks of T2 and T5, indicating populations or groups with different migratory strategies. The number of retraps constituted 9.2-12.1% of birds captured. In both years, minimum stopover length ranged from 1 to 15 or 16 days with a median of 5 days (averages 5.26 and 5.54, respectively). The majority of the retraps put on significant fat in both years. Retraps continued to put on weight for up to two weeks after they had arrived. In this second study documenting the Willow Warbler migration in Turkey, it was revealed that such wetlands as Manyas Kuşcenneti National Park provide crucial stopover habitat for possibly several populations of the species enabling them to gain necessary fat loads before crossing two major ecological barriers, the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara.
, Queensland, Austrailia. 27 October-1 November 1996. Edited by M. J. DIETERS, A. C. MATHESON, D. G. NICKLES, C. E. HARWOOD, and S. M. WALKER. pp. 164-168 (1996)
LI, B., McKeand, S. E., and WEIR, R. J.: Tree improvement and sustainable forestry - impact of two cycles of loblolly pine breeding in the USA. Forest Genetics 6: 229-234 (1999)
LINDGREN, D.: Aspects on suitable number of clones in a seed orchard. In: Proc. Joint IUFRO meeting S02.04.1-3. Department of Forest Genetics, Royal Collage of Forestry, Stockholm, pp. 293-305 (1974
C. J. A. Shelbourne, S. Kumar, R. D. Burdon, L. D. Gea and H. S. Dungey
KUMAR, S., S. GERBER, T. E. RICHARDSON and L. GEA (2007): Testing for unequal paternal contributions using nuclear and chloroplast SSR markers in polycross families of radiata pine. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 207-214.
LIBBY, W. J. (1964): Clonal selection and an alternative seed orchard scheme. Silvae Genet. 13: 32-40.
LINDGREN, D., L. D. GEA and P. A. JEFFERSON (1996): Effective number and coancestry in breeding populations following within family selection. Silvae Genet. 45: 52-59.
MATHESON, A. C. and D. LINDGREN (1985
In this paper, controlling and optimizing against the earthquake by using genetic algorithm is investigated. In this paper, a new approach for selecting optimal accelerograph and scaling them for dynamic time history analysis is presented by the binary genetic algorithm and natural numbers, in order to achieve the mean response spectrum, which has a proper matching and a short distance with the target spectrum and indicates the expected earthquake of the site. Because of the difference in the nature of accelerograph and the scale coefficients, the genetic algorithm presented in this paper, is hybrid (has two chromosomes). The proposed algorithm is capable of constructing a new generation of people from a series of infinitesimal earth movement records, in a process where natural selection, mating, mutation takes place, and creates a new generation of people and continues this process until a person with desirable qualities is obtained. One of the most important factors in the accuracy and efficiency of these programs is the correct estimation of their parameters. If these parameters are correctly calculated, the difference between the mean response spectrum and the spectrum of the plot will be greatly reduced. Due to the relatively large number of these parameters, the use of trial and error-based methods largely relies on user skills, the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm program can overcome this defect. The program has two genomes that run simultaneously and provide close answers to the optimal answer. The program itself is able to provide the user with a range of optimal coefficients and crossing values and mutations of each chromosome.
Location, methods and overview of results (1984–2015)
Tibor Csörgő, Andrea Harnos, Lajos Rózsa, Zsolt Karcza and Péter Fehérvári
The present paper acts as an introduction to a series that will describe the exploratory analyses of migration phenology and morphometrics of the most common passerine species at the Ócsa Bird Ringing Station. This station is situated in the Ócsa Landscape Protection Area that belongs to the Duna–Ipoly National Park, Hungary. The area is somewhat cooler and more humid than the surrounding agricultural fields and tree plantations, covered by a mosaic of diverse hygrophilous vegetation patches. Bird trapping is mostly based on Japanese mist-net lines crossing different plant communities. During the period of 1984–2015, a total of 422,862 birds were trapped and ringed here, while 202,739 local, 1,235 within country, and 443 foreign recaptures were also recorded. Each bird is characterized by the following data: location and time of capture, species, age, sex, scores of fat, pectoral muscle, wing tip abrasion, and moult, length of wing, 3rd primary, and tail, and body mass. After subjected to a rigorous quality check, digital data are deposited in the archive of the Hungarian Bird Ringing Centre, and the EURING data base. From time to time, other research projects also utilized the accessibility of wild birds captured here, thus collection of blood samples, ecto- and endoparasites was carried out at the station. The relatively long time span, large number of species and individuals, and the readily available environmental (weather, vegetation, etc.) data makes the avian data collected here a suitable base for studies of various disciplines like capture methodology, habitat preferences, breeding, migration, and wintering, effects of weather and climate change, and epidemiology of viruses and parasites.
A quantitative assessment of the morphogenetic capability of strawberry was performed. In the experiment, three genotypes of strawberry Fragaria × ananassa Duch. were tested, including two cultivars: ‘Plena’ and ‘Kent’, and one breeding clone no. „394‟. Morphogenetic efficiency was expressed by the mean number of microplants produced by the explant of progeny combinations F1 in two subsequent subcultures. Progeny F1 was obtained after crossings, which were carried out according to Griffing's method 3, with the use of the parental genotypes given above. Quantitative parameters: combining ability and the effect of reciprocal crosses estimated in the progeny F1 allowed to assess the genetic control of the analysed feature. The high positive effect of reciprocal crosses showed that in „Plena‟ the morphogenetic capability is genetically controlled mainly by nuclear genes. On the other hand, aspects of extranuclear inheritance of the analysed trait were observed in ‘Kent’, which proved a weak explant ability of the progeny combination F1 to produce microplants. This resulted in the high negative effect of reciprocal crosses for that cultivar
D. Babangida, A. A. Ibrahim, F. O. Oladayo, A. A. Magaji, B. R. Alkali and A. H. Jibril
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) poses a major constraint to international trade in animals and animal products in sub-Saharan Africa. A retrospective and serological survey was conducted in two major Border States of Sokoto and Kebbi in north-western Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the sero-prevalence of FMD virus (FMDV) antibodies in cattle at international animal control posts and to examine cattle population movement across the border area for a period of one year (January to December 2014) from the available records. Eight hundred and eighty (880) sera samples were collected and screened for the presence of antibodies to FMDV using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The data were subjected to chi-square and relative risk to check for independence and association. An overall seropositive rate was found to be 55.2 % (486/880). A 79.9 % (359/450) sero-positive rate was obtained from the Kamba border, while 29.5 % (127/430) was found at the Illela border. Kamba showed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher sero-prevalence when compared with cattle that are crossing the Illela border (Relative Risk 2.70; 95 % Confidence Interval 2.317—3.149). Retrospective data from the control posts revealed that an average number of 2019 and 2747 of cattle, respectively, crossed the Kamba and Illela international borders monthly. The highest influx of animals from the Niger Republic through the Illela international border was encountered between the month of March and April 2014. The magnitude of the presence of FMDV Non-structural protein (NSP) antibodies in the study areas is an indication of the infection and the presence of the virus in the study areas and the neighbouring countries.
Etzkowitz, H., and Zhou, C. (2006). Triple Helix twins: innovation and sustainability, Science and Public Policy, volume 33, number 1, pp 77-83.
Ghinea, V. M., Dima, A. M., & Hadad, S. (2017). EXCELLENCE MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE CONVERGENCE IN THE EU HIGHER EDUCATION. Amfiteatru Economic, 19(11), 1107-1122.
Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny H., Schwartzmann, S., Scott, P. and Trow, M. 1994. The New Production of Knowledge, Sage.
Gladwin, T. Kennelly, J. Tara-Shelomith, K (1995) - Shifting Paradigms for Sustainable Development
Július Czap, Jakub Przybyło and Erika Škrabuľáková
(Springer, New York, 2010).
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 D.V. Karpov, An upper bound on the number of edges in an almost planar bipartite graph , J. Math. Sci. 196 (2014) 737–746. doi:10.1007/s10958-014-1690-9
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