Benedek Lazar Erzsebet, I. Benedek, I. Benedek, Kopeczi Judit Beata, Jakab Szende, Tatar Cristina Maria and I. Tilea
We present a case of a 51 year old multiple myeloma patient due to the complexity of his disease. After prior high dose therapy with cardiotoxic cytostatic drugs patient developed cardiac arrest due to a ventricular fibrillation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successfully but the hematologist stopped the cytostatic treatment due to the high cardiac risk.
The only way to control his myeloma was an autologous transplantation but this also had a very high cardiotoxic potential due to the high dose of Melphalan administered as conditioning treatment.
We present the difficulties and the results of this complex case. It also arises the potential beneficial effects of the megadose of stem cells on the myocardium but this needs further studies.
Ayyalasomayajula Neelima, Ajumeera Rajanna, Reddy G. Bhanuprakash, C.S. Chetty and Challa Suresh
Lead (Pb) is a toxic pollutant known to cause several abnormalities related to the brain, including cognitive dysfunction, and it is ubiquitous in nature. β-amyloid peptides (AP) are crucially involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It has been reported that there is a connection between lead and amyloid peptides in exerting similar kinds of altered functions in the brain and long-term exposure to lead leads ultimately to increased beta amyloid formation in the brain, lethal to human brain cells. There is still a lack of information on the mechanism by which Pb affects AP formation, exerting combined toxicity in AD patients. To fill the gap, we have systematically analyzed the toxicity individually and in combination of Pb and AP in human brain cells. We found that the combination of Pb and AP exerted a higher toxicity than individual exposures in human neuroblastoma cells. The lower inhibitory concentration values were determined by both time and concentration dependent manner on using MTT assay. The data resulted in the development of enhanced toxicity on exposure to Pb with both the combinations of AP(1-40) or (25-35) and with all combinations in human brain cells compared to individual exposures to Pb (1-40) or AP(25-35). The severe apoptotic effect and alteration in cell cycle by arresting at the S-phase evidenced the increased toxicity of combinational exposure to Pb and AP on human neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, the quantitative determination of LDH and caspase-3 activity indicated the induction of severe toxicity. We conclude that both are synergistically associated with effects such as arresting the cell cycle and triggering apoptosis during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.
INTRODUCTION: Chronic periodontitis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth caused by microorganisms in the dental biofilm, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation and gingival recession. Treatment of chronic periodontitis aims at arresting the inflammation and stopping the loss of attachment by removal and control of the supra- and subgingival biofilm and establishing a local environment and microflora compatible with periodontal health. The AIM of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical therapy (scaling and root planning) in the treatment of moderate chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 30 patients aged between 33 and 75 years, of which 46.7% women and 53.3% men, diagnosed with moderate and, at some sites, severe periodontitis. They were treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy methods (scaling and root planning and curettage if indicated). Additionally, chemical plaque control with rinse water containing chlorhexidine was applied. The diagnostic and reassessment procedures included measuring the periodontal indices of 601 periodontal units before and after the therapy. The indices measured were the papillary bleeding index (PBI), the hygiene index (HI), the probing pocket depth (PPD) and the clinical attachment level (CAL). RESULTS: Significant reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation was found in all treated patients; we also found a statistically significant reduction of periodontal pockets with clinically measured depth ⋋ 5 mm (PD ⋋ 5 mm). Pockets with PD > 5 mm did not show statistically significant lower incidence rates probably due to the initially small percentage of deep pockets in the patients studied. There was a statistically significant reduction of all sites with attachment loss, the highest significance found at sites where the attachment loss was greater than 5 mm. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that nonsurgical periodontal therapy is effective in managing the moderate chronic periodontitis. Given a good patient compliance, the antimicrobial periodontal therapy can be quite efficient in arresting the inflammatory process and reducing the depth of periodontal pockets; it can also achieve a stable attachment loss level and obviate the need to use a surgical periodontal treatment modality.
Dan Sebastian Dîrzu, Natalia Hagău, Theodor Boţ, Loredana Fărcaş and Sanda Maria Copotoiu
1. Kanstad BK, Nilsen SA, Fredriksen K. CPR knowledge and attitude to performing bystander CPR among secondary school students in Norway. Resuscitation 2011;82:1053–1059.
2. Lester C, Donnelly P, Weston C. Is peer tutoring beneficial in the context of school resuscitation training? Health Educ Res. 1997;12:347–54.
3. Teenmark Survey 2003. New York, NY: Mediamark Research and Intelligence, LLC; 2003.
4. Becker L, Eisenberg M, Fahrenbruch C, Cobb L. Public locations of cardiac arrest: implications for public access defibrillation
Ashim Kumar Basak, Tridip Chatterjee, Swapan Kumar Ghosh and Amit Chakravarty
The effects of four food additives, namely sodium nitrite (NaNO2), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), potassium nitrite (KNO2), and potassium nitrate (KNO3), on animal development were evaluated by using Drosophila melanogster, a model organism. Adult male and female flies were allowed to breed in culture medium, each containing one of 4 concentrations, i.e.10, 20, 30 or 40 mM of the above mentioned salts. The concentration of 40 mM, NaNO2 and KNO2 completely arrested the development of the flies. Of the different concentrations of the four salts tested, exposure of flies to 30 mM NaNO2 exhibited only significant delays in the initial appearances of third instar larvae, pupae and young adults, along with huge reduction in the number of pupae and young adults compared to controls. Rearrangements like inversions, deletion looping, regional shrinking, as well as highly enlarged puffing, etc. were also observed in the polytene chromosomes of the third instar larvae exposed to 30 mM NaNO2. Developmental outcomes of the flies exposed to varying concentrations of NaNO3 and KNO3 did not differ significantly from the controls. Owing to the extensive genetic homology between Drosophila and human and the successful uses of this fly as models in developmental and toxicological studies, we speculate that the experimental results exhibited by this organism in our study strongly advocate for abstaining from the dietary use of NaNO2 and KNO2 during human pregnancies to avoid possible negative developmental outcomes.
Lotte Ask Reitzel, Niels Bjerre Holm, Kristian Linnet and Irene Breum Müller
In a criminal case involving cutting and resale of amphetamine and cocaine in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, maltitol was used as a cutting agent. The analysis of maltitol in seizures of pure diluents as well as in amphetamine and cocaine powders was carried out using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with high-resolution (HR) mass spectrometric detection. Maltitol was identified in four out of nine amphetamine samples and in five out of six cocaine samples from the case in question. The use of maltitol as a cutting agent was considered by the police as a specific marker of the particular criminal group under investigation. To support or reject this hypothesis, cocaine and amphetamine samples from a four month period after the involved persons had been arrested were evaluated, also as part of the police investigation. None of these samples contained maltitol. The work described covers the part of the case involving the department of forensic chemistry, and not the whole police investigation, but everything was done within the frames given by the police. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a disaccharide polyol being used as a cutting agent for illicit drugs.
Eduard Ujházy, Mojmír Mach, Jana Navarová, Ingrid Brucknerová and Michal Dubovický
Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson´s fundamental principles of teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realise that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in CDDs. Moreover, the classical toxicologic monotonic doseresponse paradigm recently has been challenged by the so-called “low dose-hypothesis”, particularly in the case of endocrine active substances. These include some pesticides, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 65 to 70% of all congenital defects classified as having an unknown etiology. Today CDDs include any birth defect, either morphological, biochemical, or behavioural.
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Senol Yavuz, Cuneyt Eris, Faruk Toktas, Tugrul Goncu, Yusuf Ata and Tamer Turk
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5. Chair SY, Hung MS, Lui JC, Lee DT, Shiu IY, Choi KC. Public knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in