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Efficacy of differential non-invasive approaches in determining the clinical course in patients with Crohn’s disease

. Makharia GK, Tandon RK. Emergence of Celiac Disease and Crohn’s Disease in India. Medicine Update. 2008;. 18:250-6. 17. Farmer RG, Hawk WA, Turnbull RB Jr. Clinical patterns in Crohn’s disease: a statistical study of 615 cases. Gastroenterology. 1975; 68:627-35. 18. Vermeire S, Van Assche G, Rutgeerts P. Laboratory markers in IBD: Useful, magic, or unnecessary toys?. Gut. 2006; 55:426-31. 19. Colombel JF, Solem CA, Sandborn WJ, Booya F, Loftus EV Jr, Harmsen WS, et al. Quantitative measurement and visual assessment of ileal

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9. Ovine DRB1 Polymorphism and Its Associations with Body Weight, Milk Contents and Immunological Parameters

Nassiri M.T., Roshanfekr H., Fayazi J. (2012). Polymorphism of Ovar- DRB1 second exon with PCR-RFLPtechnique in Arabi Sheep population of Khuzestan province. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 11: 760-762. Mir M.R., Gelderman H. (2008). Variant molecular marker in MHCeffect fertility trait in sheep. J. Biotechnol., 74: 787-792. Nikbakht G., Rezaii H., Stear M.J., Talebi M.A., Mohmoudzadeh H. (2012). Allelic polymorphism in the second exon of Ovar-DRB1 in fat-tailed sheep. Vet. J., 192: 547-549. Paterson S., Wilson K., Pemberton J

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Integration of EST-CAPS markers into genetic maps of Eucalyptus urophylla and E. tereticornis and their alignment with E. grandis genome sequence

, D. R. BOWATTE, T. J. LAWRENCE, E. H. A. RIKKERINK, S. E. GARDINER and S. S. KORBAN (2008): Development of a set of SNP markers present in expressed genes of the apple. Genomics 92: 353-358. CHO, R. J., M. MINDRINOS, D. R. RICHARDS, R. J. SAPOLSKY, M. ANDERSON, E. DRENKARD, J. DEWDNEY, N. FEDERSPIEL, A. THEOLOGIS, W. H. YANG, E. HUBBELL, M. AU, E. Y. CHUNG, D. LASHKARI, B. Lemieux, C. DEAN, R. J. LIPSHUTZ, F. M. AUSUBEL, R. W. DAVIS and P. J. OEFNER (1999): Genome-wide mapping with biallelic markers in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Genet 23: 203

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Gene Polymorphisms as Markers of Disease Susceptibility

Gene Polymorphisms as Markers of Disease Susceptibility

The most widespread diseases of modern man have a polygenic basis, including genetic predisposition and factors in the external environment. Such is the case with cardiovascular disease, malignancy, diabetes and so on. It should be borne in mind that risk factors usually include disorders that are themselves multifactorial, which further indicates the complexity of pathophysiological mechanisms. In the investigation of genetic factors in polygenic diseases studies are underway to determine the association with specific gene polymorphisms. Genetic or DNA polymorphisms are differences in the hereditary basis which are normally found in human populations. The human genome consists of 3×109 nucleotide (base) pairs, and it is considered that, on average, every 1000th nucleotide is polymorphic, i.e. varies between two loci or two individuals. The most common type of gene polymorphisms is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Although gene polymorphisms are an expression of normal variations in the hereditary basis, their effect on the phenotype is interesting, especially the association with proneness to certain diseases. Association studies examine the incidence of certain genetic variants, i.e. genetic polymorphisms in a group of patients, and compare it with the data of a healthy population. The results are often contradictory, so the number of polymorphisms whose role as markers of genetic predisposition has been clearly confirmed is still small. In this paper we review literature data and present experiences from our laboratory in studying genetic polymorphisms as susceptibility factors for the occurrence of thrombophilia and atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations.

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LACK OF ASSOCIATION OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α G–308A AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-β1 C–509T POLYMORPHISMS IN PATIENTS WITH DEEP NECK SPACE INFECTIONS

. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b and TNF-a) and chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1a) as markers of peri-implant tissue condition. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010; 39(5): 478-485. 5. Wiercińska-Drapalo A, Flisiak R, Jaroszewicz J, Prokopowicz D. Increased plasma transforming growth factor-b1 is associated with disease progression in HIV-1-infected patients. Viral Immunol. 2004; 17(1): 109-113. 6. McCartney-Francis NL, Wahl SM. Transforming growth factor b: a matter of life and death. J Leukoc Biol. 1994; 55(3): 401-409. 7. Skorpil N

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Differentiation of six Eucalyptus trees grown in Mexico by ITS and six chloroplast barcoding markers

for Fungi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 6241-6246. SCHROEDER, H. and M. FLADUNG (2010): SSR and SNP markers for the identification of clones, hybrids and species within the genus Populus. Silvae Genetica 59: 257-262. SCHROEDER, H. and M. FLADUNG (2014): Differentiation of Populus species by chloroplast SNP markers for barcoding and breeding approaches. iForest Doi: 10.3832/ifor1326-007 SCHROEDER, H., A. M. HOELTKEN and M. FLADUNG (2012): Differentiation of Populus species using chloroplast

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Genetic Divergence of Cattle Populations Based on Genomic Information

, Lim D, Kim HC, Choi BH, Park HS, Kim OH, Kim S, Kim TH, Yoon D, Hong SK (2011): Linkage disequlibrium and effective population size in Hanwoo Korean cattle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24, 1660-1665. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2011.11165. Miller J, Poissant J, Kijas J, Coltman D (2011): A genome-wide set of SNPs detects population substructure and long range disequilibrium in wild sheep. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11, 314-322. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02918.x. O’Brien AMP, Mészáros G, Utsunomiya YT, Sonstegard TS

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Genomic variation across cervid species in respect to the estimation of red deer diversity

on Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial marker sequences, with first indications for a new species. J Zool Sys Evol Res 2015, 53:340–349. 16. Toonen RJ, Puritz JB, Forsman ZH, Whitney JL, Fernandez-Silva I, Andrews KR, Bird CE: ezRAD: a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms. Peer J 2013, 1:e203. 17. Albrechtsen A, Nielsen FC, Nielsen R: Ascertainment biases in SNP chips affect measures of population divergence. Mol Biol Evol 2010, 24:1–20. 18. Kumar S, Banks TW, Cloutier S: SNP Discovery through Next-Generation Sequencing

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PCR-based detection of single sequence variants from a natural collection of the non-model tree species European Aspen Populus tremula (L.)

: 365-386. SCHROEDER, H., A. M. HOELTKEN and M. FLADUNG (2012): Differentiation of Populus species using chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers - essential for comprehensible and reliable poplar breeding. Plant Biology 14: 374-381. SEEB, L. W., W. D. TEMPLIN, S. SATO, S. ABE, K. WARHEIT, J. Y. PARK and J. E. SEEB (2011): Single nucleotide polymorphisms across a species’ range: implications for conservation studies of Pacific salmon. Molecular Ecology Resources 11 Suppl 1: 195-217. SEIFERT, S., B. VORNAM

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FGB -455 G>A and GP IIIa PIA1/A2 polymorphisms in a group of Romanian stroke patients

Abbreviations EU- European Union GP- glycoprotein IHD- ischemic heart disease FGG- fibrinogen gamma FGA- fibrinogen alpha FGB- fibrinogen beta CVD- cerebrovascular disease vWF- von Willenbrand Factor PCR-RFLP- polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism χ 2 - Chi-square test OR- odds ratio CI- confidence interval SNP- single nucleotide polymorphism References 1. Ohman EM, Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Goto S, Hirsch AT, Liau CS, et al. The Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry: an

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