Since 2014, there have been admission tests in mathematics for applicants to the Estonian University of Life Sciences for Geodesy, Land Management and Real Estate Planning; Civil Engineering; Hydraulic Engineering and Water Pollution Control; Engineering and Technetronics curricula. According to admission criteria, the test must be taken by students who have not passed the specific mathematics course state exam or when the score was less than 20 points. The admission test may also be taken by those who wish to improve their state exam score. In 2016, there were 126 such applicants of whom 63 took the test. In 2015, the numbers were 129 and 89 and in 2014 150 and 47 accordingly. The test was scored on scale of 100. The arithmetic average of the score was 30.6 points in 2016, 29.03 in 2015 and 18.84 in 2014. The test was considered to be passed with 1 point in 2014 and 20 points in 2015 and 2016. We analyzed test results and gave examples of problems which were solved exceptionally well or not at all.
Stopover Ecology of Some Passerines at Ankara (Central Turkey)
In autumn 2002 we studied little known passerine migration at a woodland patch within the Middle East Technical University (METU) campus in Ankara (Turkey). A total of 954 individuals of 35 passerine species were mist-netted, ringed, measured, weighed and fat-scored (after Busse 2000). Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) and Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) were the two most common species, with 308 and 145 individuals caught, respectively. Both are passage migrants at METU, recorded from mid-August to late October, representing several waves.
Only 11.5% of Blackcaps had the fat score of T6 and above, and among 20 retraps only 2 gained fat significantly. All the other retraps lost fat, stayed the same, or increased 1-2 scores at most. In contrast, Willow Warblers, as true trans-Saharan migrants, had the much higher proportion (46%) of individuals with fat scores of T6 and above. Most retrapped individuals gained fat, some with already high levels stayed the same, while none lost fat. We interpret these data in terms of known migratory ranges, diet types and habitat patch quality.
Although daily catches were low, a diverse range of species used METU as a stopover site. Fat deposition rates (of up to 50% of body weight within a week) suggest that the study site provided a high quality stopover habitat for most migrants. In Central Turkey, such suitable habitats with trees or tall shrubs are scarce, and therefore, crucial for migrants.
P. Kolbábek, P. Maxová, L. Kouřimská, D. Lukešová and R. Kotrba
Small animal producers in Europe can financially benefit if they sell not only carcasses or dissected cuts, but also processed meat and edible offal in value added products such as traditional and popular pâté. In particular, when introducing a new exotic species like eland (Taurotragus oryx) to the market, the sale of low valued cuts with higher collagen content is problematic. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensory traits of several pâtés made from liver and less valuable fresh or frozen meat cuts (neck, brisket and plate) of eland and cattle. Four batches of pâté made from fresh and frozen material (45 and 90 days) were tested by 35 panellists using sensory profiling method with 14 descriptors. Two pâté batches consisted of chicken liver and beef or eland meat. Another two were made from eland or beef liver together with eland meat. Pâté made from fresh material, including chicken or eland or beef liver, together with eland meat or beef showed the main differences in textural characteristics such as friability, overall texture being better scored for pâté which includes chicken liver. Chicken liver also resulted in a higher intensity of colour. Freezing of material (meat and liver) before processing into pâté resulted in worse scoring of the final product. Chicken liver batches scored better in sensory traits of overall appearance, pleasantness of taste, colour and intensity of colour, colour hue and textural friability, overall texture and of pleasantness of consistency. Pâté made from chicken liver from frozen material also had lower off-flavour. This pilot study showed that pâté from fresh eland meat and chicken liver scored the best in most of the sensory traits. Freezing and storing meat and liver before processing resulted in worse scores, especially in olfactory, visual and textural traits. The use of chicken liver instead of eland or beef liver to process pâté improves sensory traits.
Xingxiu Zhao, Jing Zhang, Hongmei Ming, Wei Zou, Yang Wang, Changqing Zhao, Shengdong Mu, Hao Zhang and Lin Qiu
Pediococcus acidilactici was used to ferment fresh pork. After fermentation, the pork jerky was subjected to sensory evaluation and the levels of pH, free amino acids, and volatile compounds were measured. The results showed that the fermented pork jerky had a better sensory evaluation score (score: 93.2), lower pH value (3.54), and more free amino acids (39.24 mg/100 g). Furthermore, in the fermented pork jerky, the content of three acids (18.552%) was high, which lowered the pH of the pork jerky and inhibited growth of pathogens. Moreover, some new compounds produced, including 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (49.095%), 2,3-butanediol (2.790%), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2.400%), oxalic acid isobutyl hexyl ester (2.280%), phenylethyl alcohol (0.953%), and eucalyptol (0.659%), contributed to the flavour of pork jerky. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. acidilactici can be used for the production as well as improvement of the quality and flavour of fermented pork jerky.
Gohar Afrooz, Naser Sabaghnia, Rahmatollah Karimizadeh and Fariborz Shekari
Knowledge about the extent of variability and the association among traits are of a high value for any breeding efforts. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the agro-morphological traits in a set of durum wheat genotypes under supplemental irrigation and dry land conditions. Results showed that principal component (PC) analysis had grouped the measured traits into four main components that altogether accounted for 77% of the total variation under non-stressed condition and 87% under water-stressed condition. With regard to the first four PCs, peduncle length, agronomic score, grain yield, vigority, test weight, days to physiological maturity and thousand kernel weight have shown to be the most important variables affecting the performance of durum wheat under non-stressed condition. In the first four PCs at the water- stressed condition, agronomic score, grain yield, vigority, days to physiological maturity, test weight and peduncle length have been shown to be the important variables under water-stressed condition. The results of factor analysis relatively confirmed the results of PC analysis. Our findings indicated that a selection strategy should take into consideration of agronomic score and days to physiological maturity under non-stressed condition while plant height and spike length under water-stressed condition. Therefore, the above-mentioned traits could be used as indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of grain yield in durum wheat, especially in early generations of breeding programmes
Özgür Didrickson, Jno Didrickson and Przemysław Busse
Autumn Migration Dynamics, Body Mass, Fat Load and Stopover Behaviour of the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) at Manyas KuşcennetI National Park (NW Turkey)
Turkey is located on one of the major migratory routes between Palearctic and Afrotropical regions. Despite its importance for many species, few studies exist on bird migration over Turkey. In this study, autumn migration dynamics and stopover behaviour of the Willow Warbler, a passage migrant in Turkey, was documented and analysed at Manyas Kuşcenneti National Park (NW Turkey). Birds were mist-netted, ringed, measured, weighed and fat scored from mid-August in 2002 and end of August in 2003 to end of October in both years. Totally, 543 and 929 Willow Warblers were ringed in 2002 and 2003, respectively. For 2002 and 2003 respectively, fat score values (mean ± SE) were 4.63 ± 0.06 and 3.84 ± 0.05, while body mass reached 11.38 ± 0.07 and 10.37 ± 0.05 g for birds captured for the first time. Fat scores in 2003 showed a bimodal distribution with peaks of T2 and T5, indicating populations or groups with different migratory strategies. The number of retraps constituted 9.2-12.1% of birds captured. In both years, minimum stopover length ranged from 1 to 15 or 16 days with a median of 5 days (averages 5.26 and 5.54, respectively). The majority of the retraps put on significant fat in both years. Retraps continued to put on weight for up to two weeks after they had arrived. In this second study documenting the Willow Warbler migration in Turkey, it was revealed that such wetlands as Manyas Kuşcenneti National Park provide crucial stopover habitat for possibly several populations of the species enabling them to gain necessary fat loads before crossing two major ecological barriers, the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara.
Kováts D. 2012. Autumn migration of the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) in northernHungary. Ring 34: 23-36.
The autumn migration of the Thrush Nightingale was studied in Szalonna in northern Hungary in 1989-2010. Birds were mist-netted, ringed, aged, measured, weighed and fat scored. In total, 193 Thrush Nightingales were ringed during 22 years. Relations between arrival time and biometrical measurements were determined. Within the study period (6 August - 26 September) the migration curve was bimodal showing maximum on 22 August and 27 August. Immature birds arrived significantly earlier with lower body mass and shorter wing length and had more pointed wings in the first half of their passage. The distribution of fat score classes did not differ significantly between the early and late periods of the most intensive migration, although the mean of the deposited fat was the lowest during the peak of migration. Fat reserve distribution was bimodal in autumn suggesting that Thrush Nightingales probably start their journey from different breeding ranges (populations) or follow still undiscovered migration strategies of sex/age groups. The low proportion of recaptures proved that the area was not used as a stopover site or premigratory fattening area. Within 22 years of study, the median date of autumn migration of Thrush Nightingales shifted 7.9 days earlier, probably due to current climate change.
Sandra N. Jimenez-Garcia, Moisés A. Vázquez-Cruz, Rita Miranda-Lopez, Lina Garcia-Mier, Ramon G. Guevara-González and Ana A. Feregrino-Perez
The effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was evaluated on sensory quality traits of two commercial sweet bell pepper varieties, Fascinato and Orangela, by descriptive sensory evaluation, principal component analysis (PCA), and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). A sensory descriptive lexicon was established for the sweet pepper and an intensity score was assigned for 25 sensory attributes in all the samples. Such intensity score was performed by twelve trained panelists. Among the results it was shown that foliar application of elicitors to pepper crop produced significant differences in sensory traits of the harvested fruits. MANOVA allowed detecting differences in aroma profile among treatments and varieties, showing important changes depending on the combination of elicitors applied on each variety. The principal component analysis (PCA), showed that the PC1 explained 81.02%, while PC2 explained 9.24% of the variance in the results. A strong correlation between varieties and treatments 2 (36 mM H2O2) and 4 (0.1 mM SA and 36 mM H2O2) with PC1 was observed. Treatments 2 and 4 were related to changes in aroma and flavor traits. Fascinato was more susceptible to the effect of elicitor than Orangela. Therefore, elicitor combinations used in this experiment were capable to improve sensory quality of peppers, and not only promote an increase in shelf life as previous studies have shown.
Oksana Zakala, Ihor Shydlovskyy and Przemysław Busse
Variation in body mass and fat reserves of the Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus on autumn migration in the L'viv province (W Ukraine)
The aim of the paper is limited to a rough describing peculiarities of relations between fat deposit level and the body mass as well as a seasonal and diurnal dynamics of catching at an inland study site located far to the North from important geographical barriers on the Sedge Warbler migration to Central Africa. Material was collected in 1999 and 2000 from July (11 Jul. 1999 and 28 Jul. 2000) till 29 August in L'viv province (western Ukraine). In the present paper 1066 Sedge Warblers caught in 1999 and 407 ones caught in 2000 were taken under consideration. Their body mass and fat score were recorded according to rules published by Busse (1983, 2000). During elaboration of the data the idea of body mass standardisation for a defined fat score (T2) was adopted (Busse 1970) and adequate correction values (ci) were calculated. Because of the obtained results a new procedure of the correction values defining - if the data allow - is proposed.
In both years adults were highly significantly heavier than immatures. This finding leads to conclusion that summarising data for adult and immature Sedge Warblers in calculation of body mass correction values would result in significant growth of variance. Having compared the body mass in years 1999 and 2000 a pronounced difference between immatures was found. In 1999 the first period of migration was characterised by relatively high representation of adults (16.8%) and a low fat level (average fat score T = 1.76 and relative fat load t = -0.12 g for adults, while T = 1.57 and t = -0.21 g for immatures). This time was probably premigration dispersion and gaining of fat before migration rather than real migration movements. The share of adults among Sedge Warblers migrating in second and third periods was very similar in both studied years (1999 - 9.43% and 2000 - 9.46%). The fat load of birds caught during these periods was higher than in the starting period but still rather low as for long-distance migrants (T = 2.06-2.42 and t = 0.03-0.21 g for adults, T = 1.90-2.30 and t = -0.05-0.16 g for immatures). Both the fat load and body mass was growing during a day. The most interesting here were the differences in the growth rate: the average fat load grew during a day by 0.27 g while direct values of the actual body mass differed by as much as 0.84 g (that is more than two times more). This relation was repeated in 2000. That could mean that visible fat deposit does not reflect all gained fuel, but it should be studied more deeply than even big samples, from two years only, allow.
Analysing changes of the fat load and the body mass one must keep in mind that observed differences in the fat scores of birds caught in different parts of a day could be caused by two separate processes: (1) feeding and accumulation of fuel reserves (passing borders set in a fat scoring procedure) and (2) possible differentiation of the diurnal activity of birds that already have different levels of stored fat.
In this study, the effect of carob flour incorporation on some physical, chemical, technological, sensory and functional properties of tarhana was investigated. Carob flour was replaced with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in tarhana dough. Dietary fibre, raw fibre, ash, Ca, K, Cu, total phenolic compound contents and total antioxidant capacity of dry tarhana samples as well as the acidity values during fermentation of the wet tarhana samples increased with carob flour substitution. Samples with supplementation had lower lightness and higher Hunter a and b values. Carob flour addition decreased the viscosity and yield stress of tarhana soup samples. The results showed that carob flour addition affected all the parameters measured to various extents including sensory properties. Overall acceptability scores were most highly correlated with taste. According to the sensory analysis results, carob flour can be used successfully up to the amount of 15%.