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Kosol Kampitak, Haruetai Suntisetsin and Tasanee Sirikul

References 1. Yospaiboon Y, Prabriputaloong A. Ulcerative keratitis: clinical analysis of 183 cases. Ramathibodi Med J. 1986; 9:23-9. 2. Kunavisarut S, Prawinwong K, Sirimongkolkasem A. Corneal ulcer: clinical analysis of 60 cases. Ramathibodi Med J. 1989; 12:122-6. 3. Kosrirukvongs P, Prabhasawat P, Dumavibhat P. Corneal ulcer at Siriraj Hospital. Siriraj Hosp Gaz. 1992; 44:856-67. 4. Kanok-kantapong S, Ratanasukhofl M. Ulcerative keratitis in Songklanagarind Hospital. Thai J Ophthalrnol. 1994

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Eslam El-Sawy, Fatma Bassyouni, Sherifa Abu-Bakr, Hanaa Rady and Mohamed Abdlla

, Susceptibility Testing: Diffusion Test Procedures , in Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Eds. E.H. Lennette, A. Balows, W.J. Hausler Jr. and J.P. Truant), 3 rd ed., American Society for Microbiology, Washington (DS) 1980, pp. 463-474. T. Mosmann, Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays, J. Immunol. Meth.   65 (1983) 55-63; DOI: 10.1038/nbt089.716. J.M. William, A.V. Edward, D.I. Dale and S. Youqing, Progesterone facilitates cisplatin toxicity in

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Ömer Ertürk

Abstract

In this study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracted Achillea latiloba Ledeb. ex Nordm (Asteraceae) samples in acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) from Trabzon Province (Turkey) were investigated. Antimicrobial activity of A. latiloba varied depending on the extract of samples, dosage of extracts, and the extraction solvents for all test microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtillis, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans were studied with use of disc diffusion and agar dilution method. The results indicated that each of the crude extracts of Achillea latiloba exhibited a more or less pronounced antibacterial and antifungal potency both in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. While in the Gram-negative group, the most sensitive microorganism to Achillea latiloba were S. enteritidis and Streptococcus mutans which is Gram-positive. In the Gram-positive group, the microorganisms most sensitive to Achillea latiloba were Streptococcus mutans and L. monocytogenes. However, the least sensitive microorganism was P. vulgaris. The results presented in this paper suggest that Achillea latiloba possesses additional antimicrobial activities that has an effect against some Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

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Ivan V. Yankov and Tonyo Il. Shmilev

ABSTRACT

Ventilator-associated pneumonias have been estimated to be the second most common nosocomial infections among children treated in intensive care units. They occur in mechanically ventilated patients through intubation tube or tracheostomy, the infl ammation usually involving the lung parenchyma. The ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with a longer antibiotic treatment, greater duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and higher mortality rates in children. The condition is also associated with a higher cost of the treatment. This paper reviews and comments in detail the criteria formulated by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNSI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonias in children. The disease etiology is associated with the typical causes of nosocomial infections in this age: P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The pathogenesis of the condition is inadequately studied but the aspiration of gastric contents and immune defi ciency are proven risk factors. Two mechanisms have a major role in the development of the disease - micro-aspiration of gastric contents and colonization of the lower airways with pathogens.

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Ibtissem Boulacel, Brahim Harkati, Radia Ayad, Ibrahim Demirtas, Hocine Laouer and Salah Akkal

References [1]. Okpekon, T.; Yolou, S.; Gleye, C.; Roblot, F.; Loiseau, P.; Bories, C.; Grellier, F.; Frappier, F.; Laurens, A.; Hocquemiller, R., Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, Journal of Ethnopharmacology , 2014 , 90 , 91-97. [2]. Downie, S.R.; Watson, M.F.; Spalik, K.; Katrz-Downie.; D.S., Molecular systematic of old world 2. Apioideae (Apiaceae): Relationships among some members of tribe Peucedaneae sensu lato, the placement of several island-endemic species, & resolution within the apioid superclade, Can. J

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Angelina P. Vlahova, Christo K. Kisov, Elka V. Popova, Irina A. Haydushka and Vanya N. Mantareva

(ΙΙΙ)-phthalocyanines in the photodynamic inactivation of planktonic and biofi lm cultures of pathogenic microoorganisms. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2011;10:91-102. 10. Konopka K, Goslinski T. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry. J Dent Res 2007;86(8):694-707. 11. Al-Dwairi ZN. Infection control procedures in commercial dental laboratories in Jordan. J Dent Educ 2007;71(9):1223-7. 12. Kugel G, Perry R, Ferrari M, Lalicata P. Disinfection and communication practices: a survey of US dental laboratories. JADA 2000;131(6);786-92. 13

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K. Szmuc, M. Kus-Liskiewicz, Ł. Szyller, D. Szmuc, M. Stompor, I. Zawlik, T. Ruman, S. Wołowiec and J. Cebulski

, 322–325. DOI: 10.1021/ed084p322. 9. Liz-Marźan, L. & Lado-Touriňo, I. (1996) Reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles in ethanol by nonionic surfactants. Langmuir . 12, 35853–3589. DOI: 10.1021/la951501e. 10. Radziuk, D., Skirtach, A., Sukhorukov, G., Shchukin, D. & Mohwald, H. (2007).Stabilization of silver nanoparticles by polyelectrolytes and poly(ethylene glycol). Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 848–855. DOI: 10.1002/marc.200600895. 11. Malina, D., Sobczak-Kupiec, A., Wzorek, Z. & Kowalski, Z. (2012). Silver nanoparticles with

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Kin Israel Notarte, Takashi Yaguchi, Keisuke Suganuma and Thomas Edison dela Cruz

. B., Bethe, B., Höfs, R., Zeeck, A., 2002: Big effects from small changes: Possible ways to explore nature's chemical diversity. ChemBioChem 3, 619–627. Calvo, A. M., Wilson, R. A., Bok, J. W., Keller, N. P., 2002: Relationship between secondary metabolism and fungal development. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 66, 447–459. Cui, C. M., Li, X. M., Meng, L., Li, C. S., Huang, C. G., Wang, B. G., 2010: 7-norergosterolide, a pentalactone-containing norsteroid and related steroids from the marine-derived endophytic Aspergillus ochraceus EN-31

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Artur Drzewiecki, Małgorzata Bulanda, Katarzyna Talaga, Anna Sodo and Paweł Adamski

References 1. Nordmann P, PicazoJJ, Mutters R et al.: Comparative activity of carbapenem testing: the COMPACT study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 66: 1070-78. 2. Mendes RE , Rhomberg PR, Bell JM et al.: Doripenem activity tested against a global collection of Enterobacteriaceae, including isolates resistant to other extended-spectrum agents. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2009; 63: 415-25. 3. Kaniga K, Flamm R, Tong SY et al.: Worldwide experience with the use of doripenem against extended

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Radosław Plewa, Jacek Hilszczański, Tomasz Jaworski and Grzegorz Tarwacki

References Adlbauer K., Fritz J.J. 1996. Protaetia (Cetonischema) aeruginosa in der Steiermark (Col., Scarabaeidae). Mitteilungen der Abteilung für Zoologie am Landesmuseum Joanneum Graz, 50: 121-125. Bańkowska R. 1993. Species composition and structure of pine forest fauna in Poland. Introduction. Fragmenta Faunistica, 36 (1): 5-11. Burakowski B., Mroczkowski M., Stefańska J. 1983. Chrząszcze - Coleoptera. Scarabaeoidea, Dascilloidea, Byrrhoidea i Parnoidea. Katalog fauny Polski. PWN, Warszawa, 23 (9): 194 p