State University Press. Falola, T.; Afolabi, N. (2008). Trans-Atlantic migration : The paradoxes of exile . Feather, N. T. (1988). Values, valences, and course enrolment: Testing the role of personal values within an expectancy-valence framework. Journal of Educational Psychology 80: 381–391. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology 78(6): 1360–1380. International Labor Organization. (2006). Vulnerability and young women entrepreneurs: A case study of Ethiopian informal economy. Geneva: ILO
-macro Model of its Formation , “Academy of Management Review”, Vol. 28, Academy of Management Briarcliff Manor, New York, USA. Kourtit, K., Nijkamp, P., van Vught, F. (2014), Clusters of Supernova Stars in knowledge-based Spaces: Value Creation through Cooperation , “International Journal of Global Environmental Issues”, Vol. 13 (2–4), Inderscience Publishers. Massey, D.S. Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., Taylor, J.E. (2005), World in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium , Oxford University Press
Aušra Razgūnė and Romas Lazutka
References ANNISTE, K., TAMMARU, T., PUNGAS, E. and PAAS, T. (2012). Dynamics of Educational Differences in Emigration from Estonia to the Old EU Member States. Norface Migration Discussion paper No. 2012-17. AZMAT, G., MANNING, A. and VAN REENEN, J. (2007). Privatization, Entry Regulation and the Decline of Labor’s Share of GDP : A Cross-Country Analysis of the Network Industries. CEP Discussion paper No 806, June 2007. BENTOLILA, S., and SAINT-PAUL, G. (2003). Explaining Movements in the Labor Share. BERTHOLD, N., RAINER, F., and
Marzanna Poniatowicz and Agnieszka Piekutowska
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The aim of the article is to assess how much rebalancing of the six eurozone troubled economies (Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus) was achieved since the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2007/2008, to what extent migrations were a mitigating factor on their labor markets and how much the troubled countries were assisted in their adjustment by other countries. The first part of the article shows an overall macroeconomic picture of the troubled economies' rebalancing together with a presentation of the etiology of the problem (i.e. accumulation of imbalances). The second part presents the role of migrations and the third part the role of the Eurosystem and international financial assistance in the rebalancing process. The research is based on comparing developments in selected indicators across countries. The conclusions are that the rebalancing in the troubled countries was either at most limited or actually their economies continued to fall out of balance (various indicators showing various developments make the situation ambiguous), migrations were either not much supportive for rebalancing of the troubled economies or they did not provide any dent to unemployment at all and that the troubled countries were provided with significant international assistance mainly in the form of the ECB policies causing the rise in the Target balances.
The article analyses how historical events shape generalized trust in contemporary Polish society. The analysis consists of a set of logistic regression models. The impact of historical variables is controlled for age, sex, education and the size of the municipality. This is the first quantitative study on Poland that links historical events with the current levels of trust among Polish citizens. The common knowledge is that the Partitions of Poland had negative impact on trust. Literature on the topic hints that historical demo? graphics should play a role too. The findings suggest that Partitions had little impact with only Greater Poland and Pomerania having lower levels of generalized trust. Historical literacy rate and the presence of Ukrainian or Belarusian population are negatively associated with generalized trust while the abrupt migrations after the World War I are positively associated. The rapid character of migration is supposed to positively impact generalized trust by forcing individuals to cooperate and rely on people with whom they have no personal ties.
Turkey: numerical analysis of data. International Scientific Journal World Scientific News, Vol. 90, pp. 88-100, Nov. 2017, Katowice, Poland. 8. Koshulko, O. (2017). Slavic women in Turkey: from past to present. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium “Geçmişten Günümüze Göç - Migration from Past to Present,” organized by Canik Municipality together with History Studies Journal, (pp. 2117-2124), Canik, Samsun, Turkey, February 17-19. 9. Koshulko, O. (2016). Women from North move to South: Contemporary migration from the Former Soviet Union
There is a turmoil in Europe and the world as far as the terms multiculturality and interculturality are concerned and have been concerned in recent years. The overwhelming historical, political, cultural and economic changes that have shaken the whole world have brought about significant changes in otherwise relatively traditional societies and communities, as well, with a very important impact on people's lives not only in point of economy, but communication, attitude towards labour, personality traits, national security and others. All interpersonal relations have been tinted by the reaction towards some „buzz words” that are very popular nowadays; nevertheless, they are at the core of a tremendously huge process of changes in the mere life of European societies and communities.
In this environment, all economic activities that involve huge movements of individuals and masses (like tourism and hospitality) have experienced huge transformations; and if the ability and skill of making international communication mingle with the feeling of security encountered in a certain environment- these would definitely lead to a potential and real growth in that economic sector, including the third one of services.
We truly believe tourism is one of those, and good international relations, as well as strategic partnerships, contribute to its development.
In order to achieve results in tourism you only have to provide the following: secure environment, a competitive product, and good value for price services. It also helps if you have skilled employees, though.
://www.ilo.org/ilostat/faces/home/statisticaldata ; last access on: December 18, 2014. ILO (2015), ILO Working Conditions Laws Database , ILO, Geneva, available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail ; last access on: August 14, 2015. Kaczmarczyk, P., Dabrowski, P., Fihel, A., Stefanska, R. (2014), Recent Trends in International Migration in Poland: The 2012 SOPEMI Report, CMR Working Papers , 71/129. Knotek, E. (2007), How Useful is Okun’s Law?, Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City , fourth quarter, pp. 73–103. Laporšek, S. (2013), Minimum wage effects on youth employment in
Çağrı L. Uslu
References Al-Sakka, R., Gwilym, O. (2009), Heterogeneity of sovereign rating migrations in emerging countries, Emerging Markets Review, No. 10, pp. 151-165. Alsakka, R., Gwilym, O. (2010), Leads and lags in sovereign credit ratings, Journal of Banking & Finance, No. 34, pp. 2614-2626. Anand, A. M., Thakor, A. V. (2011), Credit ratings and litigation risk, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1787206 (10.05.2017). Banerjee, A. V. (1992), A simple model of herd behavior, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, No