dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and was ultrasonicated in water (SKS) resulting in the exfoliation of graphite flakes into graphene sheets or few layer graphene.
Chemical and structural characterization
The samples obtained before and after Hummers’ treatment and sonication were analyzed using various structural and morphological characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron
times, and dried at 80 °C for 24 h.
The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Siemens D500) in the range of 2θ scanning angle of 15° to 60°, using CuKα radiation with graphite monochrome and a Ni filter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Bruker Tensor 27, better than 1 cm −1 ) operating in the range of 4000 cm −1 to 400 cm −1 with KBr as a diluting agent, Raman spectroscopy (T64000 HORIBA Jobin Yvon with high spectral resolution) using a 50 mW and 514.5 nm wavelength Ar green laser, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, JEOL JSM-6335F
Changchun Chen, Pengfei Hu, Jun Yang and Zixuan Liu
placed into the air blowing thermostatic oven under 60 °C for 48 hours. When they were naturally cooled down to room temperature, these x-SBT/PVDF thin films were successfully fabricated.
Structural and electrical characterizations
The crystal structure properties of x-SBT/PVDF films on Si substrate synthesized in this study were investigated by θ to 2θ method of XRD with a CuKα 1 (λ = 0.15406 nm) source at 40 kV and 35 mA using an ARL XTRA powder X-ray diffraction diffractometer at a scan rate of 10°/min. FT-IR spectra were performed on a Nicolet FT-IR
Juliet Ordoukhanian, Hassan Karami and Azizollah Nezhadali
, therefore decreases the size of nanoparticles [ 14 ].
In the present work, two widely used nanoparticles of iron and iron oxide were obtained at the same time by the pulsed current electrochemical method using a membrane divided electrochemical cell and iron (II) sulfate aqueous solution as a starting material. The composition, size and morphology of the synthesized samples were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, TEM and VSM studies. The method has been found to be simpler, efficient, clean and energy saving, which could have a potential for industrial
image processing approach using ImageJ programme has been also used to measure the particle size from 2D SEM images. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurement has been performed by Perkin Elmer 1600 FT-IR in the spectral range of 400 cm –1 to 4000 cm –1 in % T mode using KBr pellet technique. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data was recorded using PANaytical’s X’Pert-Pro diffractometer, with CuKα radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å), operating at 40 kV and 40 mA. The 2θ scanning range was from 10° to 60° in steps of 0.02°. The XRD data was further analyzed
I. Md. Zahid, S. Kalaiyarasi, M. Krishna Kumar, T. Ganesh, V. Jaisankar and R. Mohan Kumar
to each other. The DSDMS crystal was grinded to uniform fine powder and subjected to powder X-ray diffraction study to reveal crystalline perfection of the compound. The peaks were indexed using PowderX program ( Fig. 4 ) which shows the predominant planes of DSDMS crystal.
Powder XRD pattern of DSDMS.
IR and Raman spectral studies
4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methylstilbazolium 2,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonate (DSDMS) crystal was powdered and FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded to identify the presence of functional groups. Fig. 5
L. Chandra, J. Chandrasekaran, K. Perumal, B. Babu and V. Jayaramakrishnan
-aminopyridine. Hence, the asymmetric system consists of a protonated 2-aminopyridine mono-ionized with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Previously, Arumanayagam et al.  performed optical transmittance, band gap, refractive index, optical conductivity, dielectric and powder SHG studies of these crystals. In this manuscript, additionally to those studies, we present the first investigation of the powder XRD, FT-IR, birefringence, photoconductivity, etching and phase matching properties of APAB.
Pure specimens of 2-aminopyridine and 4
Ayaz Arif Khan, M. Javed, A. Rauf Khan, Yousaf Iqbal, Asif Majeed, Syed Zahid Hussain and S.K. Durrani
fine nickel ferrite (NiFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles.
The structural investigation of the annealed powders of the samples was performed by using X-ray diffractometer (Rigaku DMAX-3A) with CuK α radiation (1.5406 Å). For examining microstructure of all the calcined samples, the scanned micrographs were taken by JEOL JSM-6510LV scanning electron microscope (SEM) machine. The Fourier transform infrared spectra were taken by Perkin-Elmer 100 Series FT-IR spectrometer with potassium bromide (KBr) as a solvent. The optical characterization was
Munirah, Ziaul Raza Khan, Anver Aziz, Mohd. Shahid Khan and M.U. Khandaker
Fig. 5 shows FT-IR spectra of ZnO thin films with different zinc concentrations. The characteristic ZnO absorption bands are centered at 488 cm −1 . However, a lower frequency peak of low intensity at ~759 cm −1 , related to the ZnO stretching mode, is observed in the present spectra. We observe various other peaks due to the solvent effects. The absorption bands are centered at 1423 cm −1 due to the O–H bending of the hydroxyl group. The absorption peaks at 1581 cm −1 are due to the acetate group (CH 3 COO − ). From Fig. 5 , it can be
range of Bragg’s angle of 10° to 85° using CuK α (1.5406 Å) radiation with a step size of 0.02 at room temperature. Microstructure was studied with a field emission scanning electron microscope (Mira 3-XMU). The chemical compositions of the samples were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (EDS microanalyzer in FESEM, Mira 3-XMU). Also, IR spectra of the xerogel and calcined powder were recorded with an FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker Vector 33) in the range of 400 to 4000 cm −1 .
Results and discussion