Anna Kalinka, Stephen Mifsud, Agnieszka Popiela and Magdalena Achrem
Elatine gussonei (Sommier) Brullo is an endemic species, with a distribution restricted to the central part of the Mediterranean Basin (Maltese islands, Lampedusa, southern part of Sicily). This hydrophyte grows in rainwater pools and cavities in karstic limestone. Although the morphology has been well studied, no karyological study has been carried out, and hence this work brings the first chromosome data for the Maltese-pelago endemic E. gussonei.We have found a diploid number of 54 chromosomes in E. gussonei, which differs from the chromosome number of most of Elatine species (2n = 36). Additionally, this account gives a recent distribution of the species on the Maltese islands.
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In the paper the influence of atmospheric circulation on selected dangerous weather phenomena in Europe in the year 2000 has been presented. Dangerous weather phenomena include: 30 days with thunderstorms in Poland and 26 examples of such phenomena in Europe (tornados, strong winds, thunderstorms, torrential rains, floods, etc.).
The NAO index (North Atlantic Oscillation) served to determine the character of the circulation that influenced the occurrence of catastrophic phenomena in Western, Central and Southern Europe. The J. Lityński classification of circulation types was used to thunderstorms occurring in Poland only. Most catastrophic phenomena during the positive NAO phase (predominance of zonal circulation) happened in Western and Central Europe. During the negative NAO phase (predominance of meridional circulation) the regions of the Mediterranean Basin were more frequently affected. In the case of thunderstorms in Poland in the year under investigation (2000) their occurrence was related to the inflow of air masses from the northern sector.
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Storms in the European part of the Mediterranean Sea Basin are characterized in the paper. Data on storm days comes from the years 1986-2008, from fourteen stations located on the coast and on islands of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Valencia, Palma de Majorca, Marseille, Ajaccio – Corsica, Cagliari – Sardinia, Palermo – Sicily, Naples, Luqa – Malta, Thessaloniki, Athens, Souda – Crete, Rhodes Airport – Rhodes and Larnaca – Cyprus). The greatest number of storm days was noted in Corsica (870 - on the average 37,8 per year) and the least in Gibraltar (371 – 16,1). In most of the examined stations storms took place most frequently in the fall (from 19 to 46%). The smallest number of storm days was observed in winter (western and central part of the region) and in summer (eastern part). From a year-to-year analysis of storm days, it was found that their trend, at almost at all the stations, is negative. The strongest negative trend was observed in Valencia, Naples and Cagliari (-8,5 days/10 years). A growing trend, reaching 3 storm days/10 years, was only found in Cyprus.
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Leonid Dinevich, Yossi Leshem and Alexander Matsyura
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