The transparent conducting titanium-gallium co-doped zinc oxide (TGZO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The effects of working pressure on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The results show that the deposited films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and highly textured along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The TGZO film prepared at the working pressure of 0.4 Pa exhibits the best crystallinity, the maximal grain size, the highest transmittance, the lowest resistivity and the highest figure of merit. The optical constants of the films were calculated using the method of optical spectrum fitting. The dispersion behavior of the films was studied by the single-electronic oscillator dispersion model. The oscillator parameters and optical bandgaps were determined. The results demonstrate that the microstructure and optoelectrical properties of the TGZO films are dependent on the working pressure.
The present work reports on the optimization of substrate temperature, molar concentration and volume of the solution of nickel oxide (NiO) thin films prepared by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) technique. NiO films were optimized and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, UV-Vis and I-V measurements. Based on XRD analysis, the molar concentration, volume of solution and substrate temperature of the prepared NiO films were optimized as 0.20 M, 5 mL and 450 °C for P-N diode applications. The XRD pattern of the optimized NiO film revealed cubic structure. The surface morphological variations and elemental composition were confirmed by SEM and EDX analysis. The optical properties were studied with UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the minimum band gap value was 3.67 eV for 450 °C substrate temperature. Using J-V characteristics, the diode parameters: ideality factor n and barrier height Φb values of p-NiO/N-Si diode prepared at optimum conditions, i.e. 450 °C, 0.2 M, 5 mL, were evaluated in dark and under illumination.
Near stoichiometric and stoichiometric CuIn(1−x)Al(x)Se2 (CIAS) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) spectra have been employed to confirm the structure and composition of the prepared films. SEM analysis of near-stoichiometric and stoichiometric CIAS thin films enabled us to estimate the grain size, to identify the growth mechanism and also to visualize the surface morphology. Transmittance spectra have been employed to determine the type of transition and other optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, refractive index, Sellmeier parameters and bandgap which are reported in this paper in detail.
CdS thin films with (1 1 1) orientation were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at 80±5 °C using the reaction between NH4OH, CdCl2 and CS(NH2)2. The influence of annealing temperature varying from 150 °C to 250 °C was studied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Various parameters, such as dislocation density, stress and strain, were also evaluated. SEM analysis indicated uniformly distributed nano-structured spherically shaped grains and net like morphology. Optical transmittance study showed the wide transmittance band and absence of absorption in the entire visible region. I-V characterization of p-Si/n-CdS diode and photoluminescence studies were also carried out for the CdS films.
Artur Wiatrowski, Michał Mazur, Agata Obstarczyk, Danuta Kaczmarek, Roman Pastuszek, Damian Wojcieszak, Marcin Grobelny and Małgorzata Kalisz
In this paper, comparative studies on the structural, surface, optical, mechanical and corrosion properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by continuous and sequential magnetron sputtering processes were presented. In case of continuous process, magnetron was continuously supplied with voltage for 90 min. In turn, in sequential process, the voltage was supplied for 1 s alternately with 1 s break, therefore, the total time of the process was extended to 180 min. The TiO2 thin films were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate and the surface morphology was homogeneous. Structural analysis showed that there were no major differences in the microstructure between coatings deposited in continuous and sequential processes. Both films exhibited nanocrystalline anatase structure with crystallite sizes of ca. 21 nm. Deposited coatings had high transparency in the visible wavelength range. Significant differences were observed in porosity (lower for sequential process), scratch resistance (better for sequential process), mechanical performance, i.e. hardness:elastic modulus ratio (higher for sequential process) and corrosion resistance (better for sequential process).
P. Nagaraju, Y. Vijayakumar, D. Phase, V. Reddy and M. Ramana Reddy
Microstructural properties of Ce1-x
GdxO2-δ (x = 0 to 0.3) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique were studied. The thin films were deposited on Si(100) substrate at a substrate temperature of 973 K at the oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 Pa using KrF excimer laser with energy of 220 mJ. The prepared thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the thin films. Crystallite size, strain and dislocation density were calculated. The Raman studies revealed the formation of Ce-O with the systematic variation of peak intensity and full width half maxima depending on concentration of gadolinium dopant. The thickness of the films was estimated using Talystep profiler. The surface roughness was estiamted based on AFM.
Thin films of non-stoichiometric indium antimonide (In0.66Sb0.34) have been deposited by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates at different substrate temperatures, (300–473 K). The films have polycrystalline nature with zinc blende structure. The decrease in electrical resistivity with increasing temperature shows semiconducting behavior. Hall measurements indicate that the films are of n-type. Optical transmission spectra of as deposited thin films have been measured at different substrate temperatures. All the electrical parameters i.e. electron mobility (µ), carrier concentration (n), resistivity (ρ), activation energy and band gap (E
g) have been found to be temperature dependent. Suitable explanations are given in the paper.
Synthesis and characterization of Mn-doped Sb2S3 thin films (TFs) prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at room temperature have been documented and their structural, optical, morphological, magnetic and photovoltaic properties have been examined for the first time. Their structural properties reveal that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF has an orthorhombic phase structure of Sb2S3, and that the grain size of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF (72.9 nm) becomes larger than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF (69.3 nm). It has been observed that Mn content causes the Sb2S3 TF band gap to decrease. This situation clearly correlates with band tailing due to the impurities that are involved. The morphological properties have revealed that the shape of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is more uniform than the shape of its undoped counterpart. The study on its magnetic properties has demonstrated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF exhibits paramagnetic behavior. Its paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature was found to be -4.1 K. This result suggests that there is an anti-ferromagnetic interaction between Mn moments in the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF. Incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and J-V measurements were also carried out for the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF for the first time. The results have indicated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF can be utilized as a sensitizer to improve the performance of solar cells. Another important observation on the photovoltaic properties of Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is that the spectral response range is wider than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF. Our study suggests that the introduction of dopant could serve as an effective means of improving the device performance of solar cells.
A.M. Abd-Elnaiem, M. Mohamed, R.M. Hassan, A.A. Abu-Sehly, M.A. Abdel-Rahim and M.M. Hafiz
Chalcogenide glasses have attracted much attention largely due to their interesting physical and chemical properties. Though few published articles exist on the As-Te system, little is known about the optical properties of eutectic or near eutectic composition of As-Te system upon heat treatment. Therefore, this paper reports the effects of annealing temperature on the structural and optical parameters of As30Te70 thin films. The bulk and thin films of 150 nm thick As30Te70 chalcogenide glasses were prepared by melt-quenching and thermal evaporation techniques, respectively. The glass transition and crystallization reactions of the bulk samples were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The influence of annealing temperature on the transformation of the crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the surface morphology of the annealed samples was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were also calculated. The DSC scans showed that the melting temperature remains constant at 636.56 K. In addition, other characteristic temperatures such as the glass transition temperature, the onset crystallization temperature, and the crystallization peak temperature increase with increasing the heating rate. The crystalline phases for the as-prepared and annealed films consist of orthorhombic As, hexagonal Te, and monoclinic As2Te3 phases. Furthermore, the average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation density depend on the annealing temperature. The optical absorption results revealed that the investigated films have a direct transition, and their optical energy gap decreases from 1.82 eV to 1.49 eV as the annealing temperature increases up to 433 K. However, the refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant and the ratio of free carrier concentration to its effective mass, increase with increasing the annealing temperature.
, metal oxides are stable at elevated temperatures in air [ 15 ]. There are several methods for producing ZnO based films e.g. chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, successive ionic layer absorption and reaction, magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, laser chemical vapor deposition, sol-gel, spray pyrolysis, screen printing, etc. [ 1 , 3 , 16 – 22 ]. Spray pyrolysis is a non-vacuum process that produces good quality films. In this paper structural, optical and morphological properties of undoped and Fe doped ZnO thinfilms prepared by spray