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The relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

Abstract

Periodontitis is a common complication in patients with diabetes. Their classification is complex and it is based on the clinical presentation, rate of disease progression, age at diagnosis and local and systemic factors that may multiply the risk. The two major stages of periodontal diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis. The relationship between these two diseases appears bidirectional insofar that the existence of one disease tends to promote the other and that the meticulous management of either may help the treatment of the other. Treatment of periodontitis using a association of mechanical therapy, scaling and root planning, plus systemic tetracycline antibiotics has been demonstrated to have important reductions in HbA1c values. Therefore, for a better control of diabetes we suggest that periodontal patients with diabetes should be consulted and treated by a periodontist.

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LC-MS/MS analysis of doxycycline residues in chicken tissues after oral administration

-residue analysis of tetracyclines and their 4-epimers in pig tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 2003, 492, 199-213. 5. Cinquina A.L., Longo F., Anastasi G., Giannetti L., Cozzania R.: Validation of a high - performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline in bovine milk and muscle. J Chromatogr A 2003, 987, 227-233. 6. Crivineanu M., Trifan V., Paraschiv G

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An experimental in-vitro study to evaluate the anti-helicobacter activity of Glycyrrhetinic acid

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro efficacy of Glycyrrhetinic acid against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains, as compared with conventional antibacterial agents.

Methods: A total of 41 H. pylori isolates were used, 6 of which were of standard strains (NCTC 1637), 8 of which were drug-sensitive, and 27 were resistant to drugs isolates. Clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance in all strains of H. pylori were determined by the Epsilometer test (E-test) method. MIC study was performed by using microdilution broth method.

Results: Glycyrrhetinic acid was found to be effective against H. pylori NCTC 1637 in doses of 12.0±4.38 µg/mL, while the MIC value of clinical H. pylori isolates susceptible to antimicrobials was 20.8±10.11 µg/ml. It was found that the MIC values for antimicrobial-sensitive clinical H. pylori isolates was higher when compared with H. pylori NCTC 1637 strains. The MIC values of the standard antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant H. pylori strains were higher than H. pylori NCTC 1637 strains and drug-sensitive H. pylori strains. The MIC value was found to be 14.22±7.77 µg/ml for metronidazole, 3.89±1.90 µg/ml for clarithromycin, 2.33±1.0 µg/ml for amoxicillin, 2.44±0.88 µg/ml for levofloxacin and 4.89±2.47 µg/ml for tetracycline, whereas the MIC value of Glycyrrhetinic acid was 26.67±8.0 µg/ml in metronidazole-resistant H. pylori isolates. Besides, MIC values of the antimicrobials and 18ß-Glycyrrhetinic acid among the strains resistant to clarithromycin were as follows: 3.25±2.12 µg/ml for metronidazole, 9.71±4.54 µg/ml for clarithromycin, 2.06±1.32 µg/ml for amoxicillin, 3.88±4.22 µg/ml for levofloaxacin and 3.25±1.04 µg/mL for tetracycline and 22.0±11.11 µg/ml for Glycyrrhetinic acid.

Conclusion: Glycyrrhetinic acid had significant antimicrobial activity against H. pylori strains. Although further in-vivo studies are needed on antimicrobial activity of Glycyrrhetinic acid, increased resistance to drugs currently used in treatment suggests that Glycyrrhetinic acid may be a potential agent for the treatment of H. pylori.

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Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of macrolides

References 1. Altenburg J. et al.: Immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotic- part 1: biological mechanisms. Respiration, 81, 67, 2011. 2. Cazalias J., Tanabe S., Gagnon G.: Tetracyclines and chemically modified tetracycline-3 (CMT-3) modulate cytokine secretion by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood. Inflammation, 32, 130, 2009. 3. Culic O., Erakovic V., Parnham M.J.: Anti-inflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 429, 209, 2001. 4. Friedlander A.L., Albert

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Changes in Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Atypical Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Isolated from Cows of the same Herd in 2008-2010

Abstract

The isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains were examined phenotypically by cultural features, tube coagulase test and clumping factor (CF), and genotypically by conventional PCR. The strains had positive reaction in CF test, but were negative in tube coagulase test. The analysed strains from the same cows in each year expressed also nuc and coa genes. About 25% of the strains were examined by the disc diffusion method for their sensitivity to antibiotics. During three years, the strains were highly susceptible in vitro to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, oxacillin, bacitracin, and cefoperazone (more than 90%), and highly resistant to tetracycline, neomycin, and streptomycin. Forty randomly chosen strains, and eight strains from the same cows in each year were analysed for minimal inhibitory concentration of penicillin G using microdilution method. An increasing resistance to the penicillin was noted. Moreover, eight strains, the same in each year, were also examined for β-lactamase production and methicillin resistance. No β-lactamase producers and no methicillin resistant strains were found using phenotypic and genotypic methods. In conclusion, it can be stated that antimicrobial susceptibility can change from one year to another.

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ERIC-based differentiation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 isolated from animals serologically positive and negative for brucellosis

Abstract

The paper presents the results of genotypic differentiation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates that originated from cows and pigs positive in serological reactions for brucellosis, and also from the animals, which were serologically negative. The genetic relationship between Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates originating from different sources was determined by the use of ERIC-PCR, and resulted in detection of 6 to 13 DNA amplicons of different size. The clonal analysis was based on dendrogram created by Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean and Jaccard’s coefficient, which enabled to divide Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates into 16 different clonal groups. Among all Y. enterocolitica O:9, MIC value was >32 mg/L for the ampicillin, ≤0.008 mg/L for ciprofloxacin, ≤8 mg/L for sulphametoxazole, ≤2 mg/L for colistin, and ≤1 mg/L for tetracycline. The wide range of MIC for ceftazidime (≤0.25-2 mg/L) and cefotaxime (≤0.06-1 mg/L) among Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates was also observed. No significant differences were observed between MIC values of Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates originating from animals serologically positive for brucellosis, and the isolates from cows and pigs, which provided serologically negative reactions.

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Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and SCCmec types of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from subclinical bovine mastitis in Hatay, Turkey

Abstract

Eighty-nine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) of eight species from subclinical bovine mastitis were screened for the phenotypic and genotypic methicilline-resistance. In addition, all methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates indicating the mecA gene were examined by PCR for the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types were also determined by multiplex PCR. A total of 21 (23.6%) CoNS isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin in broth microdilution assay. All isolates phenotypically resistant to oxacillin did not have the mecA gene, which was only found in 14.6% (13) of the isolates. Most MR-CoNS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (92.3%), fusidic acid (84.6%), penicillin (76.9%), and rifampycin (61.5%), and susceptible to mupirocin (100%), tetracycline (100%), vancomycin (100%), clindamycin (92.3%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (69.2%). In conclusion, a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among MR-CoNS isolated from food producing animals emphasises the need for periodic surveillance of their resistance.

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Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterisation of Pasteurella Multocida Strains Isolated from Pigs in Poland

Abstract

A total of 319 Pasteurella multocida (Pm) strains isolated from pigs in Poland were examined. Phenotypic characterisation included: biochemical tests (to determine species, subspecies, and biovar), capsular typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Genotypic characterisation included detection of the toxA gene by PCR. All tested Pm strains were classified as Pm subsp. multocida: 87.2% biovar 3, 10.7%-2 and 0.9%-12. One strain was classified as biovar 1. Three strains of Pm did not suit any of the biovars. Using capsular typing methods, 77% of Pm strains isolated from nasal swabs belonged to type D and 33% to type A. Among Pm strains isolated from internal organs, 59.5% belonged to type A and 40.5% to type D. All the isolates showed a high susceptibility to β-lactams: ampicillin and amoxicilin with clavulonic acid (97.8%), penicillin (86.7%), doxicilline (100%), oxytetracycline (97.8%), and tetracycline (93.2%). It was found that all strains were susceptible to norfloxacin, 97.8% to enrofloxacin, and 95.6% to SxT. 24.4% and 15.6% of the strains were resistant to linco-spectin and tiamulin, respectively. The presence of toxA gene was confirmed by PCR in 20.8% of the strains isolated from nasal swabs and 29.1% of isolates from internal organs.

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Culturable airborne bacteria and isolation of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from outdoor environments on European side of Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract

This study is aimed to investigate culturable airborne bacteria concentrations and the composition of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in eleven different locations on the basis of specific activities conducted within different parts of the European side of Istanbul. The highest bacterial levels were observed at the Bakirkoy station (1 100 CFU/m3) while the second highest levels were found at the Bahcelievler station (1 040 CFU/m3) in October; the lowest levels (10 CFU/m3) were measured at other different stations (Atakoy, Yesilkoy). Fifteen methicillin-resistant isolates [Staphylococcus hominis (n=11), S. cohnii spp. cohnii (n=2), S. sciuri (n=1), S. capitis spp. capitis (n=1)] were identified. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates, it was observed that the most common resistance was to penicillin (P) (n=11), doxycycline (DO) (n=4) and tetracycline (T) (n=5). None of the isolates was resistant to imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, vancomycin (IPM, AMC, VA). However, multiple antimicrobial resistance was found to be 26.7%. The results of this study revealed the importance of isolated methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the stations with densely active human population and traffic, for public health. As a result, the importance of resting along known shorelines, where culturable airborne bacteria concentrations are much lower, and its importance for human health have been emphasized.

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Faecal indicator bacteria and antibiotic-resistant β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in blackwater: a pilot study

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify and quantify faecal indicator bacteria in blackwater collected from a source separation unit and determine the amount of E. coli isolates resistant to antimicrobials and their potential to produce extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs), which hydrolyse the most important antibiotics used in clinical practice. Most of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (36.4 %), followed by ticarcillin with clavulanic acid (22.7 %) and tetracycline (18.2 %). ESβL-producing genes bla CTX-M and bla TEM were found in three (13.6 %) and four (18.2 %) E. coli strains, respectively, while MβL genes were found in two (9.1 %). By separating at source, this pilot study clearly shows that gastrointestinal bacteria of healthy people can be an important source of antibiotic resistance released into the environment through wastewaters. One way to prevent that is to treat wastewater with a combination of TiO2, UV light, or ozone, as successful methods to remove resistant bacteria and prevent their spread in the environment.

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