Reza Tajik, Hasan Asilian Mohabadi, Ali Khavanin, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari and Babak Eshrati
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Michał Bodzek, Barbara Tomaszewska and Mariola Rajca
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Directive 2009/54/Ec of the European Parliament and of the
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Smal, H., Ligęza, S., Wójcikowska-Kapusta, A., Baran, S., Urban, D., Obroślak, R. & Pawłowski
Rare earth metals including yttrium and europium are one of several critical raw materials, the use of which ensures the development of the so-called high technology. The possibility of their recovery in Europe is limited practically only to secondary materials such as phosphogypsum and electronic waste.
The article presents the results of our research concerning the development of recovery technology of yttrium and europium from luminophore CRT used lamps. It describes the principle of separation of elements and the test results of cleaning the concentrate. It was shown that the costs of preparing the concentrate according to the proposed technology are lower than the phosphogypsum processing technology and the composition of the resulting product does not contain hazardous substances.
Jerzy Straszko, Wiesław Parus and Wojciech Paterkowski
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Pavol Porvaz, Ján Gaduš, Štefan Tóth and János Jóvér
“Dry fermentation“ technology may be used for energy recovery of phytomass substrate which has dry matter content from 20 to 60%. In agriculture sector, while only rarely used, it is a very perspective technology at such types of biomass – phytomass which is not recommended to be processed within “wet fermentation” (process is energetically and operationally very costly). For detecting the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus phytomass to biogas for production through dry fermentation process, as well as determining the biogas yield, at the Slovak university of Agriculture (SUA) there has been developed an experimental device enabling the pilot plant trials, which is installed at the biogas station within the area of the VPP SPU Ltd. in Kolíňany. A pilot plant experiment of biogas production based on Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.) phytomass within dry fermentation process was carried out at the period from 25 February to 25 March 2013. The monitored production of biogas was based on the substrate mixture of components formed as follows: the biomass from preceding cycle (farmyard manure) and ensilage from Miscanthus phytomass. In these experiments the amount of produced biogas, analysis of biogas and the input substrate were materialized by standard methodology. On base of the obtained results, we can formulate the conclusion: the tested substrate mainly consists of Miscanthus phytomass and manure was suitable for biogas production technology and anaerobic dry fermentation process. The yield of Miscanthus substrate in our experiments was around 117 litres of biogas per 1 kg of dry matter silage. For assurance of the continuity and uniformity in the production of biogas by dry fermentation process, the multiple-fermentation chamber is needed, which must be saturated gradually with dosing interval. This dosing interval is caused by residence time and the number of chambers. For example, at the residence time of 28 days and 4 chambers, the need of the substrate change will be on weekly base in each chamber.
Archives of Environmental Protection is the oldest Polish scientifi c journal regarding environmental engineering and protection. It has been published by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of PAS in Zabrze since 1975. The Committee on Environmental Engineering of PAS became its co-publisher in 2011. The quarterly publishes original articles (earlier, also announcements) concerning broadly understood areas of the environmental engineering and protection. The subjects include: air, land and water protection; technologies of fl ue gases, soil and wastewater treatment; transformations and transportation of pollutants in the environment; measurement techniques used in research and engineering as well as environmental monitoring. The published articles also focus on the reclamation and management of derelict lands, environmental management and other questions related to the environmental engineering and protection.
The journal has been abstracted by Thomson Scientific since 2006 in the following databases: Science Citation Index Expanded, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews. Moreover, the journal was given the impact factor (IF) in 2010. The following article presents statistical data as well as a brief history and description of the journal.
The main objective of the current study is to highlight sustainable development from the perspective of the cosmetics industry producing ‘eco-friendly’ products. In the last decades an enhancing interest is being experienced towards sustainable development among cosmetics manufacturing companies, scientific research and development (R & D) laboratories as well as green consumers in the need for natural products safer for health and less toxic for the environment. Several international studies show that cosmetic products formulated with natural ingredients developed by cosmetic industry has a higher annual market growth than for synthetic products. R & D puts special focus on new innovative technologies in green cosmetic products to meet the frequently updated requirements of regulations in compliance with the current legislation. Scientific laboratory market has an increasing importance to evaluate natural and organic raw materials. In this work the authors attempt to focus on the growing importance of research activities to sustainable cosmetics production in life cycle assessment methodology. Naturally, the conceptual scope and extent of this study do not permit all the possible issues to be examined from every aspects due to lack of data, thus it will be endeavored to point out merely the most relevant considerations in the field of cosmetic industry.