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Woronichinia Elenkin is a cyanobacteria genus characteristic of lentic ecosystems. The type species, W. naegeliana (Unger) Elenkin, often blooms in the plankton of eutrophic reservoirs but this genus also contains species sensitive to high nutrient concentrations. The study analyzed the diversity and biomass of Woronichinia in lakes in a national park, isolated from the direct impact of human activity. The lakes were in various trophic states resulting from gradual and natural changes of trophy. Trophy was assessed with the use of the trophic diatom index, according to the classification we proposed for natural lakes. The relationship between the biomass and the trophic state of lakes was investigated with the use of multivariate unconstrained analysis with supplementary variables. Five species of Woronichinia were identified in all trophic types of lakes except for two oligotrophic ones: W. compacta (Lemmerm.) Komárek & Hindák, W. delicatula (Skuja) Komárek & Hindák, W. karelica Komárek & Komárk.-Legn., W. obtusa Joosten and W. naegeliana (Unger) Elenkin. The occurrence and biomass of the species were related to the trophic state of the lakes. The absence of Woronichinia in two oligotrophic lakes could be due to the high concentration of humic compounds in the sediments. The low nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio characteristic of the oligo-mesotrophic lakes resulted in increased species diversity. The lakes’ isolation from human activity fostered the development of rare and sensitive species such as W. delicatula and W. karelica.


A relatively new type of impact of human activities on lake-river system has resulted from mining operations in the Kostomuksha iron deposit, Karelia, NW Russia. Lake Kostumus was isolated by a dam and has since acted as a waste accumulator for ore-dressing production. The total mineral content of the water has reached 400 mg l-1. Comparative analysis of the structural organization and functioning of phytoperiphyton and phytoplankton in the Kenti lake-river system and subject to anthropogenic load resulting from urbanization is presented. The algal communities influenced by mineralized mining mill wastes were analysed in terms of species richness, species diversity, species ecology values, biomass and chlorophyll a concentration. When the anthropogenic load is minimized, the natural structure of algal assemblages quickly restores. This is most typical of lake-river systems with alternations of lakes and rivers, rapids and pools, playing the role of natural water treatment facilities. The possibility of using algal assemblages as an indicator of the ecological state of lake-river ecosystems is analysed.

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