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The Management of the Patient with Elevated Prostate Specific Antigen and a Negative Initial Prostate Biopsy

References 1. May AW, Orlando ES: Prostate Cancer A Practical Guide, China, Saunders Elsevier, 2008. 2. Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J: European Association of Urology Guidelines on Prostate Cancer 2013, 3. DjavanB: Prostate Biopsies and the Vienna Nomograms, European Urology, 2006;Suppl 5 500-510. 4. Nelson AW, Harvey RC, Parker RA, Department of Urology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Repeat prostate biopsy

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Interdisciplinary consensus statement on indication and application of a hydrogel spacer for prostate radiotherapy based on experience in more than 250 patients

Background Dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT with radiation doses ≥ 76 Gy) is a highly effective, curative treatment option for localized prostate cancer. Biochemical control is directly related to radiation dose with a dose effect per each additional Gy. 1 For example, escalation from 70 to 80 Gy is connected with a 15% increase in PSA control. This dose effect is described for all risk groups. However, an increased radiation dose is also associated with rising levels of grade ≥ 2 acute and chronic toxicity. 1 Lower

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The mysterious relation between inflammation and prostate cancer

responses, and urine reflux [ 5 , 10 , 15 ]. The persistence of these factors is able to contribute to chronic prostatic inflammation. Prostate cancer (PC) is the second common cancer among American men. The role of inflammation or infection remains unclear in different cancer sites and the prostate. Recent studies in different areas, such as epidemiology, histopathology, and molecular pathology, give emerging evidence of the possible role of prostatic inflammation as an important factor involved in PC initiation and progression [ 16 , 17 , 18 ]. Inflammation is

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Increased late urinary toxicity with whole pelvic radiotherapy after prostatectomy

References Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Paradelo J, Lucia S, Miller G, Troyer D, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologically advanced prostate cancer. JAMA 2006; 296: 2329-35. Bolla M, van Poppel H, Colette L, van Cangh P, Vekemans K, Da Pozzo L, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). Lancet 2005; 366: 52-8. Wiegel T, Bottke D, Willich H, Piechota H, Souchon R, Stoeckle M, et al. Phase III results of

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Evaluation of various common prostate IMRT techniques based on estimated tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities in correlation with patients anatomical parameters derived from the CT scans

References [1] Center MM, Jemal A, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al . International variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eur Urol. 2012;61(6):1079-1092. [2] Khan FM, Gerbi BJ. Treatment planning in radiation oncology. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. [3] Pan HY, Jiang J, Hoffman KE, et al . Comparative toxicities and cost of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, proton radiation, and stereotactic body radiotherapy among younger men with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(18):1823-1830. [4

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The high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumor

these studies has resulted in the ambiguity in the correlation between high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumors. This article describes the progress in the study on the relationship between high-risk HPV infection and tumors of the urinary system. 1 Relationship between high-risk HPV infection and tumors of the urinary system 1.1 High-risk HPV infection and prostate cancer Studies have suggested that HPV infection, especially the high-risk type, is highly detectable in prostate carcinoma tissue. This characteristic indicates that HPV infection has a

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Cag Repeat Number in the Androgen Receptor Gene and Prostate Cancer

References Crawford ED. Epidemiology of prostate cancer. Urology. 2003; 62(6): 3-12. Gronberg H. Prostate cancer epidemiology. Lancet. 2003; 361(9360): 859-864. Haas GP, Sakr WA. Epidemiology of prostate cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 1997; 47(5): 273-287. Scosyrev E, Messing EM, Mohile S, Golijanin D, Wu G. Prostate cancer in the elderly: frequency of advanced disease at presentation and disease-specific mortality. Cancer. 2011; doi: 10.1002/cncr.26392. [Epub

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Stereotactic radiosurgery of prostate cancer – dose distribution for VMAT and CyberKnife techniques

References [1] Chin LS, Regine WF, editors. Principles and Practice of Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Springer; 2008. [2] Hernández TG, Gonzáleza AV, Peidro JP, et al. Radiobiological comparison of two radiotherapy treatment techniques for high-risk prostate cancer. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother. 2013;18(5):265-271. [3] Ślosarek K, Rembielak A, Maciejewski B. Dynamiczna radiochirurgia - nowe możliwości radioterapii stereotaktycznej. Nowotwory J Oncol. 2003;53(5):546-551. [4] Stąpór-Fudzińska M, Grządziel

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Human Serum Low Molecular Mass Prostate-Specific Antigen as Biomarker

References 1. Pentyala S, Whyard T, Pentyala S, Muller J, Pfail J, Parmar S, et al. Prostate cancer markers: An update. Biomed Rep 2016; 4: 263-8. 2. Shariat SF, Karam JA, Margulis V, Karakiewicz PI. New blood-based biomarkers for the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of prostate cancer. BJU Int 2008; 101: 675-83. 3. De Angelis G, Rittenhouse HG, Mikolajczyk SD, Shamel LB, Semjonow A, Twenty years of PSA: from prostate antigen to tumor marker. Rev Urol 2007; 9: 113-23. 4. Djavan B, Zlotta A

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The Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer – What We Rely Know About It?

ABBREVIATIONS BPH - Benign prostatic hyperplasia cAMP - Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’ monophosphate cGMP - Cyclic guanosine 3’,5’ monophosphate ED - Erectile dysfunction FAP-1 - Fas associated phosphatase-1 FLIP - FLICE -like inhibitory protein GAF - Allosteric cGMP binding sites iNOS - Inducible NO synthase MnSOD - Manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA - Messenger RNA NO - Nitric oxide NSRP - Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy PCSC - Prostatic cancer stem cells PDE - Phosphodiesterase PDE5Is

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