A.O. Vida, A. Szöllősi, A. Maier, B.M. Boja and Mártha Orsolya
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4. Nelson AW, Harvey RC, Parker RA, Department of Urology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Repeat prostate biopsy
Arndt-Christian Müller, Johannes Mischinger, Theodor Klotz, Bernd Gagel, Gregor Habl, Gencay Hatiboglu and Michael Pinkawa
Dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT with radiation doses ≥ 76 Gy) is a highly effective, curative treatment option for localized prostatecancer. Biochemical control is directly related to radiation dose with a dose effect per each additional Gy. 1 For example, escalation from 70 to 80 Gy is connected with a 15% increase in PSA control. This dose effect is described for all risk groups. However, an increased radiation dose is also associated with rising levels of grade ≥ 2 acute and chronic toxicity. 1 Lower
responses, and urine reflux [ 5 , 10 , 15 ].
The persistence of these factors is able to contribute to chronic prostatic inflammation. Prostatecancer (PC) is the second common cancer among American men. The role of inflammation or infection remains unclear in different cancer sites and the prostate. Recent studies in different areas, such as epidemiology, histopathology, and molecular pathology, give emerging evidence of the possible role of prostatic inflammation as an important factor involved in PC initiation and progression [ 16 , 17 , 18 ]. Inflammation is
Amin Banaei, Bijan Hashemi, Mohsen Bakhshandeh and Bahram Mofid
 Center MM, Jemal A, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al . International variation in prostatecancer incidence and mortality rates. Eur Urol. 2012;61(6):1079-1092.
 Khan FM, Gerbi BJ. Treatment planning in radiation oncology. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.
 Pan HY, Jiang J, Hoffman KE, et al . Comparative toxicities and cost of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, proton radiation, and stereotactic body radiotherapy among younger men with prostatecancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(18):1823-1830.
these studies has resulted in the ambiguity in the correlation between high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumors. This article describes the progress in the study on the relationship between high-risk HPV infection and tumors of the urinary system.
Relationship between high-risk HPV infection and tumors of the urinary system
High-risk HPV infection and prostatecancer
Studies have suggested that HPV infection, especially the high-risk type, is highly detectable in prostate carcinoma tissue. This characteristic indicates that HPV infection has a
S Madjunkova, A Eftimov, V Georgiev, D Petrovski, A Dimovski and D Plaseska-Karanfilska
Crawford ED. Epidemiology of prostatecancer. Urology. 2003; 62(6): 3-12.
Gronberg H. Prostatecancer epidemiology. Lancet. 2003; 361(9360): 859-864.
Haas GP, Sakr WA. Epidemiology of prostatecancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 1997; 47(5): 273-287.
Scosyrev E, Messing EM, Mohile S, Golijanin D, Wu G. Prostatecancer in the elderly: frequency of advanced disease at presentation and disease-specific mortality. Cancer. 2011; doi: 10.1002/cncr.26392. [Epub