Snapchat and media-use before the 2016 and 2017 Althing elections
communication in the country, but it also provides an interesting case because of the dynamics of a hybrid media system, where both candidates and partyorganizations systematically target political messages to different audiences through a variety of media channels ( Chadwick et al., 2016 ). A number of studies have been conducted on the use of social media in election campaigns in Scandinavia, many of them involving the use of Twitter ( Jungherr, 2016 ), but only very few studies include Iceland ( Bergsson 2014 ; Guðmundsson, 2014 Guðmundsson, 2016 ) According to one of
Parties in the Low Countries. West European Politics 39(2): 257–277.
Biezen, Ingrid van – Rashkova, Ekaterina R. (2014): Deterring New Party Entry? The Impact of State Regulation on the Permeability of Party Systems. Party Politics 20(6): 890–903.
Birch, Sarah (2003): Electoral systems and political transformation in post-communist Europe , Palgrave Macmillan.
Bolin, Niklas (2014): New party parliamentary entry in Western Europe, 1960–2010. European Journal of Government and Economics 3(1): 5–23.
Bolleyer, Nicole (2012): New Party
extent to which major civil society organisations are routinely consulted by policymaker, how large is the involvement of people in CSOs; the extent to which women are prevented from participating; and the extent to which legislative candidate nomination within partyorganization is highly decentralized or made through party primaries
Freedom of religion: 1 - constitution provides the freedom of religion 0 - constitution does not provide the freedom of religion
Freedom of religion index: - indicator specifying the extent to which individuals and groups have the
outsiders” Richard S. Katz & Peter Mair, Changing Models of PartyOrganization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party , 1 Party Politics 5, 16 (1995). which, itself, “counts as a problem of corruption.” Johnston , supra note 26, at 1. In campaign finance adjudication, there has been explicit and longstanding judicial recognition that both existing regulations and proposals for reform may be designed as mechanisms of power-holding or maintenance, intended to “serve the interests of the ‘ins’ … in resisting the incursions of the ‘outs’.” Buckley v
reveals no urgency that would render a congressional role impossible or impractical. In fact, speedier technology would make it much easier today to gather Congress and present it with information than was true centuries ago. One change that might argue for a more aggressive role is the atrophying of the Electoral College—the Framers believed it would guard against demagogues—and the recent weakening of political partyorganizations—party bosses tended to prefer candidates more moderate than party activists. But by themselves, these changes would not seem sufficiently