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Logics of the Icelandic Hybrid Media System
Snapchat and media-use before the 2016 and 2017 Althing elections

communication in the country, but it also provides an interesting case because of the dynamics of a hybrid media system, where both candidates and party organizations systematically target political messages to different audiences through a variety of media channels ( Chadwick et al., 2016 ). A number of studies have been conducted on the use of social media in election campaigns in Scandinavia, many of them involving the use of Twitter ( Jungherr, 2016 ), but only very few studies include Iceland ( Bergsson 2014 ; Guðmundsson, 2014 Guðmundsson, 2016 ) According to one of

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Is the “new” always “new”? Theoretical framework problems of new political parties’ research: The Czech Republic experience

Parties in the Low Countries. West European Politics 39(2): 257–277. Biezen, Ingrid van – Rashkova, Ekaterina R. (2014): Deterring New Party Entry? The Impact of State Regulation on the Permeability of Party Systems. Party Politics 20(6): 890–903. Birch, Sarah (2003): Electoral systems and political transformation in post-communist Europe , Palgrave Macmillan. Bolin, Niklas (2014): New party parliamentary entry in Western Europe, 1960–2010. European Journal of Government and Economics 3(1): 5–23. Bolleyer, Nicole (2012): New Party

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Empowerment Rights and Happiness Gap in Post-socialist Countries

extent to which major civil society organisations are routinely consulted by policymaker, how large is the involvement of people in CSOs; the extent to which women are prevented from participating; and the extent to which legislative candidate nomination within party organization is highly decentralized or made through party primaries Freedom of religion: 1 - constitution provides the freedom of religion 0 - constitution does not provide the freedom of religion Freedom of religion index: - indicator specifying the extent to which individuals and groups have the

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Justice Scalia: Tenured Fox in the Democratic Hen-House?

outsiders” Richard S. Katz & Peter Mair, Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party , 1 Party Politics 5, 16 (1995). which, itself, “counts as a problem of corruption.” Johnston , supra note 26, at 1. In campaign finance adjudication, there has been explicit and longstanding judicial recognition that both existing regulations and proposals for reform may be designed as mechanisms of power-holding or maintenance, intended to “serve the interests of the ‘ins’ … in resisting the incursions of the ‘outs’.” Buckley v

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Declaration of War: A Dead Letter or An Invitation to Struggle?

reveals no urgency that would render a congressional role impossible or impractical. In fact, speedier technology would make it much easier today to gather Congress and present it with information than was true centuries ago. One change that might argue for a more aggressive role is the atrophying of the Electoral College—the Framers believed it would guard against demagogues—and the recent weakening of political party organizations—party bosses tended to prefer candidates more moderate than party activists. But by themselves, these changes would not seem sufficiently

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