Information Review. 2010;34: 583-603. 10.1108/14684521011072990 Bernius S The impact of open access on the management of scientific knowledge Online Information Review 2010 34 583 603
2 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arxiv (March2,2011) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arxiv March 2 2011
3 Bernstein DP. Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations. J. Electr. Bioimp. 2010;1:2-17. 10.5617/jeb.51 Bernstein DP Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and
Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin
square of the built device, and surely the lengths to cross are much smaller. This characteristic was presented lately in co-flow trigonometry, employing plug flow in capillaries or droplets, and also it has been applied in droplets which are confined in micro-chambers.
Several former studies in the past decades have described different implementation methods and usage of microfluidics devices. In 2013, David J. Beebe et al . [ 1 ] developed an enclosing abstraction for microscale capillary flow. This developed concept was called suspended microfluidics. Suspended
Maureen A.J.M. van Eijnatten, Michael J. van Rijssel, Rob J.A. Peters, Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk and Jan H. Meijer
blood plasma is an electrical conductor, the impedance of the thorax varies with varying blood volume in these vessels. This is called the volume effect. Secondly, the orientation of erythrocytes changes the electrical conductivity of the blood in the major vessels. The shear stress, present in flowing blood plasma, causes the disk-shaped erythrocytes to change their orientation parallel to the velocity vectors of the blood. This causes the resistivity of the blood to decrease in the direction of the flow, which may result in a pulsating decrease in thoracic impedance
which researchers have tried to tackle them but I have only raised the subject in order to put my mind back a few decades to when I first thought about how electricity flows through the body.
I soon discovered that thinking about the body as just having resistance was a simplification, because measured resistances are usually found to decrease with the frequency of the alternating current used to make the measurements, so we should talk about impedance rather than resistance. That raises the question as to why the body has an electrical impedance that falls with
Jan H. Meijer, Eskeline Elbertse, Sanne Boesveldt, Henk W. Berendse and Rudolph M. Verdaasdonk
measurement, however, is not limited to a clinical environment or to clinical applications.
This study was financially supported by the Alkemade Keuls Foundation, project #VI-03.
1 Visser KR, Lamberts R, Korsten HHM, Zijlstra WG. Observations on blood flow related electrical impedance changes in rigid tubes. Pflügers Arch. 1976; 366: 289-91. 1033532 10.1007/BF00585894
Visser KR Lamberts R Korsten HHM Zijlstra WG Observations on blood flow related electrical impedance changes in rigid tubes Pflügers Arch 1976
, which, in turn, have a different oxygen and hemodynamic shear exposure. Oxidative species are known to be generated in endothelial cells in response to flow [ 38 ]. Oxygen synergizes with ionizing radiation to form damaging reactive oxygen species that damage the cell and so locally elevated oxygen concentration together with greater localized flow conditions could result in a larger effective radiation dose.
Endothelial cells sourced from various sites in the body respond differently to radiation. The most robust response is seen in pulmonary endothelial cells
charge, q, and magnetic flux, φ, which we can be seen from the symmetry diagram in Figure 2 .
Chua postulated an additional circuit element defined by the relation between charge and flux should exist, from both a logical point of view and for the sake of completeness [ 1 ]. Chua called this circuit element a memristor (short for memory resistor) based on the properties he found the element to have. Put simply, it was an element that changed its resistance depending on how much charge flowed through it. Since Chua was not able to realize the memristor himself at
Sepideh Mohammadi Moqadam, Parvind Kaur Grewal, Zahra Haeri, Paris Ann Ingledew, Kirpal Kohli and Farid Golnaraghi
]. Consequently, we developed a device consisting of electrical impedance electrodes in this study. The overall purpose of this paper is to utilize the multi-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) system. EIS, or opposition to the flow of an electric current through body tissues, is a commonly used method for estimating body composition. For example, EIS analysis is used in the measurement of total body fat. EIS analysis measures body
tissue resistance (due to extracellular fluid) and capacitance (due to cell membranes) by recording a voltage drop in the applied
J.C. Marquez, M. Rempfler, F. Seoane and K. Lindecrantz
modelling of blood-flow-induced changes in blood electrical conductivity and its contribution to the impedance cardiogram. Physiol. Meas. 2010;31(1):13-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/31/1/002 10.1088/0967-3334/31/1/002 19940342
Trakic A Akhand M Wang H Mason D Liu F Wilson S et al Computational modelling of blood-flow-induced changes in blood electrical conductivity and its contribution to the impedance cardiogram Physiol. Meas 2010 31 1 13 – 33 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/31/1/002
12 Woltjer HH, Bogaard HJ, Scheffer
Martina Sammer, Bob Laarhoven, Ernest Mejias, Doekle Yntema, Elmar C. Fuchs, Gert Holler, Georg Brasseur and Ernst Lankmayr
for ornamental fish. Secondary potato sludge was collected from the process water of a potato starch factory.
In order to represent the environment of a real reactor (and thus the applicability of this method) as closely as possible, tap water was used as basis for the growth medium. Because living aquatic worms are constantly exchanging substances via their permeable skin (uptake of nutrients and exclusion of catabolic substances), this tap water was pH buffered. A controlled temperature and water flow system with 12 plastic flow-through beakers was utilized to