Public administration reform has brought about, inter alia, the change of financing of original and delegated competences for municipalities. In this context, the conditions for economy of local government have changed, while the pressure was put on municipalities to make more efficient use of their property to receive the greatest possible benefit in terms of economic, social and territorial development. A municipality can manage its own property, but it can also entrust it to the budgetary and contributory organizations. The Act no. 138/1991 Coll. indicates that the municipal authorities and organizations are required to manage municipal property in favour of development of municipalities and their citizens, and protection and creation of the environment. One of the possibilities for increasing the efficiency of property use is also financial analysis, eventually economic analysis. Analysis usually results in practical useful knowledge, creating the foundation for an objective definition of relevant conditions (factors) for the future capital appreciation in municipalities. The aim of this paper is to evaluate financial performance of contributory organizations under the jurisdiction of municipalities with help of selected indicators.
Ivan Holúbek, Peter Hric, Peter Kovár and Andrea Boháčiková
The grasslands in the Slovak Republic are divided into 7 categories that have different way and conditions of management to protect and maintain them. From the area of 1,239,777 hectares of habitats in SR and payments per hectare, we calculated the amount of financial support that represents 130,265,701 € for the A-G habitats in 2010-2016. Based on the data about potential use of grassland habitats in livestock feeding (mountain meadows and alluvial meadows), the production potential of C 3.12 t.ha-1biotope E 4.25 t.ha-1of dry matter was calculated, as a result of 5-years long experiment of the Department of Grassland Ecosystems and Forage Crops of SUA in Nitra. We calculated the direct costs for the production of hay dry matter, which reached 116.78 €.ha-1in the meadows, and 71.11 €.ha-1in valleys. Direct costs per 1 hectare of hay dry production are with a support covered on 111.0% of mountain meadows and 74% of meadows. The annual value of ecosystem services of grassland habitats reached 579,789,008 €. Subsidies for permanent grassland habitats stimulate the economy of agricultural subjects and protect the biodiversity of permanent grasslands.
The aim of the study is to identify opportunities and constraints of the development of companies whose business is based on the exploitation of natural resources resulting from their location in areas of natural value. The study area consisted of 40 municipalities. Five companies were selected for the study in each municipality. The study used the method of diagnostic survey using a questionnaire interview. The results obtained give rise to a finding that economic activity based on the use of local natural resources, taking into account the need to protect the natural environment, is a legitimate direction and an opportunity for the development of local economies of areas of natural value. However, given the limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas, it requires support, mainly with information and finance. The most important limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas include the lack of preferential financial instruments, difficulties of the investment process and the lack of financial compensation for profits lost due to the location.
Gordana Dražić, Mirjana Aranđelović, Jelena Milovanović, Zuzana Jureková and Eleonóra Marišová
In accordance with priorities of sustainable development in Serbia, production and use of biomass is crucial for provision of annually renewable national sources of energy and for environmental quality conservation. Rural development has typically focused on improving agricultural production and promoting market orientation, however, as the examples of other countries in the EU accession process have shown (e.g. Slovakia), such an approach could threaten the survival of rural population. Biomass production is one of the key sectors with significant potential for diversification of rural economy. The results of multiannual research work supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia through national scientific projects and several international initiatives are summarized in this paper. The research activities focus on Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. The production potentials of miscanthus on fertile and degraded soils were investigated since 2009 in experimental plots established on moderate and extremely degraded lands in Serbia, applying various agrotechnical measures in different ecological conditions. The results show that fertile agricultural land as well as moderate degraded areas provide suitable conditions for miscanthus biomass and viable rhizomes production for energy and ecoremediation purposes.
KÁPOSZTA, J – CZABADAI, L. 2016. The effect of the common agricultural policy to the Hungarian Agricultural Structure IN: Pro Scientia Ruralis 2016/I.
HORVÁTH, B. – ERDÉLYI, D. – NAGY, H. 2016. Endorsing the criteria of sustainability in local economy development – The applicability of the naturpark concept in Hungary In Pro Scientia Ruralis, 2016/I.
KÁPOSZTA, J. – NAGY, A. – NAGY, H. 2014. Efficiency of Hungarian regions in using the development funds for touristic purposes. In Regional economy. South of Russia, vol. 4, 2014, no. 6
Czesława Rosik-Dulewska, Tomasz Ciesielczuk and Michał Krysiński
Organic Pollutants in Groundwater in the Former Airbase
Oil derivatives are commonly used and they play a key role in the economy. They are used in many industries. Such big amounts of oil derivatives products generate vast quantity of pollution. Those pollutants can get into the ground and water beyond any control during catastrophes or due to inadequately managed waste and storage. The aim of the paper was to determine the level of oil derivatives pollution in the groundwater on the area of a former airbase, where between 1950 and 1990 the Soviet Army stationed. Analysis was carried out on groundwater samples from three piezometers placed on the area of the former airbase. In the samples some parameters were determined, i.e. temperature, reaction, electrolytic conductivity, the depth of groundwater surface, the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Determined amount of dissolved hydrocarbons was large what proves unsatisfactory effectiveness of previous rehabilitation processes.
Piotr Świątczak, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska and Paulina Rusanowska
Anaerobic digestion is an important technology for the bio-based economy. The stability of the process is crucial for its successful implementation and depends on the structure and functional stability of the microbial community. In this study, the total microbial community was analyzed during mesophilic fermentation of sewage sludge in full-scale digesters.
The digesters operated at 34–35°C, and a mixture of primary and excess sludge at a ratio of 2:1 was added to the digesters at 550 m3/d, for a sludge load of 0.054 m3/(m3·d). The amount and composition of biogas were determined. The microbial structure of the biomass from the digesters was investigated with use of next-generation sequencing.
The percentage of methanogens in the biomass reached 21%, resulting in high quality biogas (over 61% methane content). The abundance of syntrophic bacteria was 4.47%, and stable methane production occurred at a Methanomicrobia to Synergistia ratio of 4.6:1.0. The two most numerous genera of methanogens (about 11% total) were Methanosaeta and Methanolinea, indicating that, at the low substrate loading in the digester, the acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic paths of methane production were equally important. The high abundance of the order Bacteroidetes, including the class Cytophagia (11.6% of all sequences), indicated the high potential of the biomass for efficient degradation of lignocellulitic substances, and for degradation of protein and amino acids to acetate and ammonia.
This study sheds light on the ecology of microbial groups that are involved in mesophilic fermentation in mature, stably-performing microbiota in full-scale reactors fed with sewage sludge under low substrate loading.
ADUA, L. – YORK, R. – SCHUELKE-LEECH, B.A. 2015. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives. In Social Science Research, 2015, pp. 1–18.
ANDERSON, A. 2011. Sources, media, and modes of climate change communication: the role of celebrities. In WIREs Clim Change, 2011 no, 2, pp. 535–546.
ANNALA, S. – VILJAINEN, S. – PAKKANEN, M. – HUKKI, K. 2016. Consumer preferences in engaging in a sustainable lifestyle. Int. J
. Education at the Glance. [s. l.]: OECD. 2010. Dostupne online. ISBN 978-92-64-07566-5.
VLADA SR. Navrh koncepcie ďalšieho rozvoja vysokeho školstva na Slovensku pre 21. storočie [online]. 6.8.2000, [cit. 2012-12-23]. Dostupne online. http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/european_economy/2012/pdf/ee-20127_en.pdf
Metodika rozpisu dotacii zo štatneho rozpočtu verejnym vysokym školam na rok 2008-2012
Galiya Akimbekova, Elena Horská and Gulnur Yegizbayeva
. Agroindustrial Integration : Theory, Practice, prospects. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2012, 330 p.
Akimbekova, G. et al. Evaluation of Agricultural Cooperative‘s Activities and the Mechanism of Improving their Effectiveness in the Republic of Kazakhstan (the methodological recommendations) LLP “Kazakh Research Institute of Economy Agribusiness and Rural Development“, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2011.
Akimbekova, G. Legislative Basic of Agricultural Cooperatives of Kazakhstan: Issues and Solutions. In Issues of Agricultural Market, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2012, no