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Felton, A., Hedwall, P.O., Lindbladh, M., Nyberg, T., Felton, A.M., Holmstrom, E
Terrain database is the reference basic for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to implement underwater terrain navigation (UTN) functions, and is the important part of building topographical features model for UTN. To investigate the feasibility and correlation of a variety of terrain parameters as terrain navigation information metrics, this paper described and analyzed the underwater terrain features and topography parameters calculation method. Proposing a comprehensive evaluation method for terrain navigation information, and constructing an underwater navigation information analysis model, which is associated with topographic features. Simulation results show that the underwater terrain features, are associated with UTN information directly or indirectly, also affect the terrain matching capture probability and the positioning accuracy directly.
Jerzy Monkiewicz, Katarzyna A. Rogowska, Anna Mielnikiewicz and Andrzej Grosicki
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 Bajpai S., Sahoo P. K., Das L. M. Feasibility of blending karanja vegetable oil in petro-diesel and utilization in a direct injection diesel engine. Fuel 2009:88(4):705–711. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2008.09.011
 Gülüm M., Bilgin A. Measurements and empirical correlations in predicting biodiesel-diesel blends’ viscosity and
Palynologic and Lithostratigraphic Research of Lacustrine, Marsh and Fluvial Quaternary Deposits in Rašica Dolina and Mišja Dolina, and on Radensko Polje
The article deals with the results of palynological and stratigraphical research of lacustrine, marsh and fluvial Quaternary deposits in the Rašica dolina and Mišja dolina, and on Radensko polje. Correlation with equivalent Quaternary deposits and their palynoflora from the Grosuplje polje area was also performed. In the study area, Mesozoic, predominantly carbonate rocks are transgressively covered by Quaternary deposits which are in general composed of five lithostratigraphic units (from bottom to top): 1. gravel, 2. grey lacustrine clay, 3. reddish brown loam, 4. light grey marly clay and 5. alluvial marsh deposits. On the basis of pollen analysis the Quaternary sediments of the study area are chronostratigraphically classified to the Late or Middle Pleistocene and Holocene.
Jianhua Zhang, Won-Hee Kang, Chunwei Zhang and Ke Sun
Typical tripod foundations are designed using deterministic computational models according to relevant standards and codes. However, for more cost-safety balanced design, uncertainties in significant parameters should be considered in preliminary design to ensure meeting a specific probabilistic safety target in the context of the complex configuration of a tripod structure. In this article, uncertainties associated with design parameters and modelling errors are considered using Monte Carlo simulations, in order to determine the key structural design parameters, and to determine the optimal balance between design parameters and design requirements. A Spearman rank-order correlation based analysis is carried out to understand the effects of design variables on maximum deformation, total weight, and natural frequency, and to have insight about important design parameters for improvement of a preliminary design. It is found that the tower diameter has the most significant effect on the maximum displacement on the hub as validated through engineering case studies. In addition, a statistical framework, which identifies influential design parameters and provides reliability evaluation, is proposed for the structural design of a tripod OWT system. The design cases considered in this study indicate that a simple deterministic design check cannot guarantee the required reliability level of the structure, and the cost-safety balance can be achieved by a reliability analysis with the consideration of the uncertainties in the structure.
often used as a proxy for photosynthetic activity and plants biomass ( Pettorelli, 2014 ). NDVI is a unitless index ranging from –1 to 1; healthy vegetation has high positive values, stressed vegetation has lower values, while bare soil and water have values around or less than zero, respectively. Several studies have shown a correlation between wet soil and NDVI values ( Lozano-Garcia, 1991 ; Levine, 1994 ; Ciallela et al., 1997) and demonstrated crop response to inundation (Streyer et al., 2013; Džubáková et al., 2015 ) or other weather-based natural disasters
Rosangela Catoni, Loretta Gratani, Francesco Sartori, Laura Varone and Mirko U. Granata
Leaf trait variations in five deciduous species (Quercus robur, Corylus avellana, Populus alba, Acer campestre, Robinia pseudoacacia) growing in an old broadleaf deciduous forest in response to light variation within the tree crown was analyzed. Net photosynthetic rate (PN), leaf respiration rate (R) and the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency were, on average, more than 100% higher in sun than in shade leaves. A. campestre and C. avellana sun leaves had the highest specific leaf area (SLA, 156.0 ± 17.9 cm2 g-1) and the lowest total leaf thickness (L, 101.9 ± 8.8 μm) underlining their shade-tolerance. Among the shade-intolerant species (Q. robur, P. alba and R. pseudoacacia), Q. robur had the lowest SLA and the highest L in sun leaves (130.6 ± 10.0 cm2 g-1 and 160.8 ± 9.6 μm, respectively) since shade-intolerant species typically have thicker leaves. The higher PN decrease in respect to R decrease from sun to shade leaves attested the higher sensitivity of PN than R to light variations within the crown. This determined a 69% lower R/PN in sun than in shade leaves. This result is further attested by the significant correlation between PN and the relative photosynthetic photon flux density. The shade-tolerant species have a 76% higher R/PN ratio than the shade-intolerant ones. The measured leaf phenotypic plasticity (PI = 0.35) was in the range of broadleaf deciduous species. Plasticity is a key trait useful to quantify plant response to environmental stimuli. It is defined as the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes depending on the environment. Among the considered species, Q. robur showed the highest PI (0.39) and P. alba the lowest (0.29). Knowledge on phenotypic plasticity is important in making hypotheses about the dynamics of the studied forest in consideration of environmental stress factors, including invasive species competition and global climate change.
Eisa Ebrahimi Dorche, Pejman Fathi and Alireza Esmaeili Ofogh
Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. They provide numerous beneficial services for people and wildlife. The most important services are improving water quality and wildlife habitats. The complex, dynamic relationships between the organisms inhabiting the wetland environment are called food webs. Both water quality and high levels of nutrients are crucial for improvement of the food web. Many bird species rely on wetlands for food, water and shelter, especially during migration and breeding. The water quality of Choghakhor Wetland was evaluated from April 2010 to March 2011, by measuring some physicochemical parameters and doing benthic macroinvertebrate analysis. Sampling was done in 3 replicates with alternation of 45 days. The resolute was divided into more than 25 identified macroinvertebrate families which belonged to 5 classes and 12 orders. The correlation between biological indices and water quality parameters showed that bioindicators and community indices could be used for the evaluation of water quality in this wetland. The water quality of Choghakhor Wetland was classified as average or in the severe pollution class, according to these indices. It can be concluded that bird migration is at risk due to the decline in the overall health of the Choghakhor Wetland ecosystem.
Blinkova, O. & Shupova T. (2017). Bird communities and vegetation composition in the urban forest ecosystem: correlations and comparisons of diversity indices. Ekológia (Bratislava), 36(4), 366–387. DOI: 10.1515/eko-2017-0029.
Blinkova, O. & Ivanenko O. (2018). Communities of woody vegetation and wood destroying fungi in natural and semi-natural forests of Kyiv city, Ukraine. Central European Forestry Journal, 64, 55–66. DOI: 10.1515/forj-2017-0030.
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