Kamila Dmochowska-Ślęzak, Małgorzata Dmitryjuk, Ewa Zaobidna and Krystyna Żółtowska
Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the Western honey bee. The activity of five antioxidant enzymes of V. destructor were analysed. Glutathione content and total antioxidant status was also evaluated. Our results suggest that antioxidant enzymes constitute the main line of defense against ROS in V. destructor, whereas low-molecular-weight antioxidants play a limited role in the antioxidant system of mites.
Dragana Stojiljković, Dušica Pavlović and Ivana Arsić
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6. Kohen R. Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress-new approaches for their evaluation. Biomed Pharmacother 1999;53:181-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(99)80087-0
7. Stadtman ER. Protein oxidation and
Sunil Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Man Jusha, Kamal Saroha, Nidhan Singh and Bhoodev Vashishta
B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine , 3 rd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999.
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Dijana Mirić, Bojana Kisić, Lepša Žorić, Zana Dolićanin, Radoslav Mitić and Marko Mirić
, Mirić D, Zorić L, Dragojević I, Stolić A. Role of lipid peroxidation in pathogenesis of senile cataract. Vojnosanit Pregl 2009; 66: 371-6.
Tarwadi K, Agte V. Linkages of antioxidant, micronutrient, and socioeconomic status with the degree of oxidative stress and lens opacity in Indian cataract patients. Nutrition 2004; 20: 261-7.
Micelli-Ferrari T, Vendemiale G, Grattagliano I, Boscia F, Arnese L, Altomare E, et al. Role of lipid peroxidation in pathogenesis of myopic and senile cataract. Br J Ophthalmol 1996; 80
oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and treatment of asthma. Curr Opin Allegy Clin Immunol 2008; 8: 49-56.
10. Sackesen C, Ercan H, Dizdar E, Soyer O, Gumus P, Tosun BN, et al. A comprehensive evaluation of the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems in childhood asthma.J Allergy Clin Immu nol 2008; 122: 78-85.
11. Saleh D, Ernst P, Lim S, Barnes PJ, Giaid A. In creased formation of the potent oxidant peroxynitrite in the airways of asthmatic patients is associated with induction of NO synthase: effect of inhaled glucocorticoid
Mateja Felicijan, Metka Novak, Nada Kraševec and Andreja Urbanek Krajnc
1. Adrian M, Jeandet P, Veneau J, Weston LA, Bessis R. Biological activity of resveratrol, a stilbenic compound from grapevines, against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent for grey mould. J. Chem. Ecol. 1997;23:1689-1702.
2. Adrian M and Jeandet P. Eects of resveratrol on the ultrastructure of Botrytis cinerea conidia and biological signi-cance in plant/pathogen interactions. Fitoterapia 2012;83:1345-1350.
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Catterall F, King LJ, Clifford MN, Ioannides C. Bioavailability of dietary doses of 3H-labelled tea antioxidants (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in rat. Xenobiotica 2003; 33: 743-53.
Spencer JP. Metabolism of tea flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract. J Nutr 2003; 133: 3255S-61S.
Meng X, Maliakal P, Lu H, Lee MJ, Yang CS. Urinary and plasma levels of resveratrol and quercetin in humans, mice, and rats after ingestion of pure compounds and grape juice. J Agric Food Chem 2004
Ruxandra Emilia Ştefănescu, Sigrid Eșianu, Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Anca Mare, Bianca Tudor and Maria Titica Dogaru
4 Dinkova R, Heffels P, Shikov V, Weber F, Schieber A, Mihalev K - Effect of enzyme-assisted extraction on the chilled storage stability of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) anthocyanins in skin extracts and freshly pressed juices. Food Res Int. 2014;65:35-41.
5 Syamaladevi RM, Andrews PK, Davies NM, Walters T, Sablani SS - Storage effects on anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity of thermally processed conventional and organic blueberries. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92(4):916-924.
6 Manhita AC, Teixeira DM, da Costa CT
Background: Liver-X-Receptor alpha (LXR-α) plays an essential role in cholesterol metabolism, bile acids, and lipid synthesis. The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α has been shown to downregulate the expression of LXR-α.
Objectives: We investigated the effects of antioxidants kaempferol and ascorbic acid on LXR-α mRNA expression in TNF-α stimulated HepG2 cells.
Methods: After the cells have reached 60% to 70% confluence, they were treated with 20 ng/ml of TNF-α for 24 hours prior to the stimulation with different concentrations of kaempferol (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, and 20 μM) or ascorbic acid (15 μM, 150 μM, and 1500 μM) for another 24 hours. Total RNA was isolated using TRI Reagent LS (Molecular Research Centre). Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was then conducted to determine the mRNA expression of LXR- α after their respective treatments.
Results: Kaempferol was able to relieve the downregulatory action of TNF-α on LXR-α in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose of kaempferol (20 μM) almost abolished the action of TNF-α by restoring the levels of LXR-α to its basal levels in HepG2 cells. Twenty μM of kaempferol alone did not produce any significant effect on LXR-α mRNA expression. In contrast, ascorbic acid was unable to counteract the action of TNF-α. In contrast to kaempferol, the highest dose of ascorbic acid (1500 μM) suppressed the expression of LXR-α mRNA in TNF-α stimulated HepG2 cells to 0.571-fold compared with no treatment. In the presence of 1500 μM of ascorbic acid alone, LXR-α mRNA expression was also significantly suppressed to 0.320-fold.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that kaempferol, but not ascorbic acid, was able to alleviate the TNF-α downregulatory effects on LXR-α mRNA in HepG2 cells. Kaempferol can be a better anti-inflammatory agent than ascorbic acid.
Aghdam, M.S., Dokhanieh, A.Y., Hassanpour, H. & Fard, J.R. (2013). Enhancement of antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry ( Cornus mas ) fruit by postharvest calcium treatment. Sci.Hortic. ,161: 160-164, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.07.006
Al-Amier, H. & Craker, L.E. (2007). In-vitro selection for stress tolerant spearmint. Reprinted from: Issues in New Crops and New Uses , J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.). ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, pp. 306-310.
Albertini, S., Reyes, A.E.L., Trigo, J.M., Sarriés, G.A. & Spoto, M