Geotourism is becoming a well established form of tourism based on the geological environment. It offers a new form of sustainable tourism which is more holistic then previous niche forms of tourism. However, with more people than ever visiting natural areas worldwide, the cumulative impacts of visitors on geological sites is increasing. This paper surveys visitor impacts and site management at geological sites which are geotourism destinations. We describe geotourism which is the engine driving the core activities of conservation, education and sustainable development in geoparks. We then outline some lessons learned from management in dealing with visitor impacts at a heavily visited geopark in Taiwan, a volcano in Indonesia, and a coastal World Heritage site in England. The importance of education is emphasized for geo-climbing in Spain and all-terrain vehicles in Poland. A number of site management approaches are noted, including the importance of guiding as a management strategy as well as the value of a positive involvement by the local community. Finally, some examples are given of the risks associated with tourism activities in volcanic areas as well as related appropriate management activities.
The aim of the paper is to present the situation of the spa resorts in Poland from the geographical point of view, emphasizing especially the tourist context of their existence. This article firstly deals with the brief history of spas in Poland and the definition of the phenomenon, presented in the Polish literature and legal acts. The main part of the paper presents the geographical analysis of the phenomenon: spatial distribution of the activities allowed by law, localization concerning the different kind of landscapes that accompanies the spas, natural and curative resources and the medical treatments based on their potential. In addition, the tourist context analysed with the support of the statistical data of the accommodation units, tourist sand its preferences, and health tourist establishments in the spa resorts and its usage is also crucial. The perspectives of the spa tourism development in Poland concerning the potential and obstacles are presented.
The management of a tourist destination in the form of networks is considered to be one of the possible approaches to destination governance structures. The concept of destination governance is based on the cooperation between actors from the public and private sectors. It is known that public–private relationships built on trust, joint risk taking and based on informal structures have a positive impact on the level of growth at a tourist destination. The aim of this paper is to quantify to what extent each of the determinants of the DMO success participate in the total destination performance, and thus point out the factors of a potential risk.
The main objective of this paper is the cooperation between the destination management organization (DMO), public sector and entrepreneurs providing tourism services. The data collection was achieved by conducting in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires. The analysed data identify the factors of successful mutual cooperation that are used as inputs for further modelling. The contribution of the paper lies in the application of the total quality management concept methodology to identify the share of each factor/determinant in the DMO performance.
This paper aims to explore the relationship between tourist experience and place attachment in a desert tourism experience. The current study was carried out with a sample of international and domestic visitors in Wadi Rum, Southern Jordan. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between the nearby constructs of the study units such as the four tourist experience dimensions (education, esthetics, entertainment, and escapism), and the two dimensional place attachments measures (place identity and place dependence). Moreover, the findings also indicate that education factor had a significantly positive relationship with place identity, and there was a significantly positive relationship between escapism factor and place dependence. The findings can be used to develop the tourist experience and place attachment in the context of desert tourism experience. They further help tourism destinations managers, planners and marketers to provide appropriate marketing strategies and enrich their offers to desert tourism participants.
The medium-sized historical towns in Czechia have at their disposal a preserved cultural heritage which constitutes important potential for tourism. Apart from some exceptions, these towns are rarely a destination of tourists, but rather of the visitors who come to visit them in connection with a targeted stay destination. They also choose them as an alternative to optional excursions, just from the destination of their stay (also from the place of their permanent residence). Based on the intensification indicators calculated from publicly accessible data, this study answers the question of what the position of tourism in the selected towns (Czech royal towns with the population size between 10,000 and 30,000 inhabitants) is. Based on the strategic documents, it analyses what strategies were chosen by the selected royal towns for their development. It also analyses whether the topic of tourism that can undoubtedly without doubts rely on its historical potential, declared by legislative protection of cultural heritage, is represented and what its importance is.
Urban tourism has become a significant phenomenon of tourism over the last decade. the importance of urban tourism has grown mainly due to the development of transport and information technologies. rapid advancement of low cost airlines and reduction of administrative barriers owing to the expansion of the schengen area caused not only the development of a number of urban destinations, including Prague, but also the growth of new source markets. this paper compares the development of urban tourism in Prague with the situation in Vienna and Budapest in the last decade. the aim of the paper is to describe the main trends of tourism development and the geographic distribution of tourism in Prague in comparison with culturally and historically similar cities - Vienna and Budapest. the analysis shows high load of tourism in Prague and its strong concentration in the old city. this causes congestion in the city centre and an extrusion of residential functions by the functions of tourism. As a result, a tourism ghetto has been formed in the centre of Prague and the urban society has been increasingly dualized.
The concept of ecotourism evolves differently in developing and developed nations due to which the basic principles of ecotourism are in question. The existing literature on ecotourism suggests ambiguity in conceptual understanding of ecotourism. Due to this qualm, ecotourism is evolving into various forms. Different stakeholders with varying objectives related to ecotourism make it further difficult to form the consensus on what constitutes ecotourism. Without the clear understanding of ecotourism, it is difficult to evolve ethics on which the ecotourism principles are based. The focus of this research is to find out the principle components or themes of ecotourism using a content analysis for the development of ecotourism policy and applications. This study identified six key components of ecotourism which are widely accepted by researchers and could be used to shape the fundamental understanding of ecotourism. These themes are: (1) Nature oriented travel; (2) Support of conservation; (3) Learning and appreciation; (4) Socio-economic development of local area; (5) Support and respect for local culture and (6) Local people (area) participation.
Academics perceive a great potential of virtual worlds in various areas, including tourism and education. Efforts adapting the virtual worlds in practice are, however, still marginal. There is no clear definition of the virtual world. Therefore the author of this article attempts to provide one. The paper also focuses on the barriers of a wider exploitation of the virtual worlds and discusses the principles that might help to increase their potential in tourism area. One of the principles – gamification – favours a wider adaptation of the virtual worlds in tourism. Applying gamification principles provides visitors with some unique experiences while serving as a powerful marketing tool for institutions. The benefits of implementing tourism education activities based on cooperative principles set in an immersive environment of the virtual worlds are depicted afterwards. Finally, this paper includes successful case studies, which show advantages and drawbacks of some approaches in exploiting the virtual worlds in tourism and tourism education.
Complex systems are characterised by a huge amount of components, which are highly linked with each other. Tourism is one of the examples of complex systems collecting various activities leading to the enrichment of travellers in the view of receiving new experiences and increasing economic prosperity of specific destinations. The complex systems can be investigated with various bottom-up and top-down approaches. The multi-agent-based modelling is the bottom-up approach that is focused on the representation of individual entities for the exploration of possible interactions among them and their effects on surrounding environments. These systems are able to integrate knowledge of socio-cultural, economic, physical, biological or environmental systems for in-silico models development, which can be used for experimentation with a system. The main aim of the presented text is to introduce links between tourism, complexity and to advocate usefulness of the multi-agent-based systems for the exploration of tourism and its sustainability. The evaluation of suitability of the multi-agent systems in tourism is based on the investigation of fundamental characteristics of these two systems and on the review of specific applications of the multi-agent systems in sustainable tourism.
The main objective of this article was to evaluate the impact of historical events on the visit rate of Bardejov Spa in various periods of its development (in the years of 1814–2016). The collection of information on clients’ spa visits, especially the oldest data, was difficult (19th century and 1st and 2nd World War). Much information was available only in the State Archive of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic in Hungarian and Latin. Some data for several years were not available at all, and some data were not recorded in writing. The paper summarizes the history of the spa, natural medical sources, spa treatment and indications. At present, the number of guests has an increasing trend, as evidenced by the visit rate for 2016, as well as by current data for 2017. In 2016, Bardejov Spa reached a pick of the visit rate with 25,863 clients. In 2017, there were 27,170 clients. The main clients are the Slovaks, about 90%.