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Molecular Detection of Pseudorabies Virus (PrV), Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) in Swine in Republic of Montenegro

duplex reverse transcription real-time PCR for the surveillance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2. Journal of Virological Methods 2014, 201:13-19. 16. Krakowka S, Allan G, Ellis J, Hambergd A, Charreyre C, Kaufmann E, Brooks C, Meehan B: A nine-base nucleotide sequence in the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) nucleocapsid gene determines viral replication and virulence. Virus Research 2012, 164:90-99. 17. Wei C, Zhang M, Chen Y, Xie J, Huang Z, Zhu W, Xu T, Cao Z, Zhou P, Su S, Zhang G: Genetic evolution and

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Looking for the causes of and solutions to the issue of honey bee colony losses

protein concentration, hypopharyngeal gland development and virus load in worker honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.). J Insect Physiol 2010, 56:1184-1191. 27. Chensheng, LU, Warchol, KM, Callahan RA: Sub-lethal exposure to neonicotinoids impaired honey bees winterization before proceeding to colony collapse disorder. B Insectol 2014, 67:125-130. 28. Wheeler MM, Robinson GE: Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup. Sci Rep 2014, 4:5726. 29. Nikolić T, Purać J, Orčić S, Kojić D, Vujanović D, Stanimirović Z

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Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa originating from farm animals and people in Egypt

out of 50 (80%) Cattle 50 17 34 10 59 Livestock drinking water 30 3 10 2 67 Human 50 10 20 7 70 All P. aeruginosa isolates were subjected to an antibiotic disc diffusion assay with carbapenem-group antibiotics ( Table 2 ). We further characterised these isolates for the presence of the β-lactam resistance genes bla KPC , bla OXA-48 , and bla NDM , and the virulence of the toxA gene ( Table 2 ). We found that 60% and 59% of animal isolates (buffalo and cattle), 67% of drinking water isolates, and 70% of human

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Characterization of a Novel Avian Avulavirus 1 of Class I isolated from a Mute Swan (Cygnus Olor) in Macedonia in 2012

9. Kim, L.M., King, D.J., Curry, P.E., Suarez, D.L., Swayne, D.E., Stallknecht, D.E., Slemons, R.D., Pedersen, J.C., Senne, D.A., Winker, K., Afonso, C.L. (2007). Phylogenetic diversity among low virulence newcastle disease viruses from waterfowl and shorebirds and comparison of genotype distributions to those of poultry-origin isolates. J Virol. 81, 12641-12653. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00843-07 PMid:17855536 PMCid:PMC2169019 10. Kim, L.M., King, D.J., Suarez, D.L., Wong, C., Afonso, C.L. (2007). Characterization of class I Newcastle disease virus

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Goat Colostrum—Source of Toxigenic Bacillus Cereus

potential virulence factors by veterinary isolates of Bacillus species associated with non-gastrointestinal infections. App. Environ. Microbiol. , 69, 4, 2372—2376. DOI: 10.1128/aem.69.4.2372-2376.2003. 18. Schoeni, J. L., Wong, A. C., 1999: Heterogeneity observed in the components of haemolysin BL, an enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus . Int. J. Food Microbiol. , 53, 2—3, 159—167. 19. Seong, S. J., Lim, J. S., Lee, K. G., Lee, S. J., Hong, K. W., 2008: Toxin gene profiling of Bacillus cereus food isolates by PCR. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem

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Evaluation of long-term antibody response and cross-serotype reaction in ducks immunised with recombinant Riemerella anatipestifer outer membrane protein A and CpG ODN

shown to successfully confer protection against homologous strains of RA, but not heterologous ones ( 9 , 12 , 16 ). Due to the diversity of RA serotypes isolated from the field, a vaccine capable of providing cross-protection would be desirable. Under this circumstance, using a molecule conserved among various RA serotypes as the antigen is imperative. The 42-kDa outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is the major virulence factor of RA responsible for cellular adhesion and invasion ( 4 , 5 ). OmpA can be found in all RA serotypes with minor genetic heterogeneity among

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Current status of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) in European pigs

haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) ( 26 ). The clinical symptoms of PED are diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration which result in very high mortality among suckling piglets and large economic losses ( 5 , 8 , 21 ). Various factors influence the clinical signs of PED, mainly the age of the animals, the herd’s immune status, and the virulence of the strain ( 18 ). Multiple PEDV strains are circulating on different pig farms around the world and they differ in virulence. PED was observed for the first time in 1971 in the United

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Phenotypic diversity and potential virulence factors of the Shewanella putrefaciens group isolated from freshwater fish

. Differentiation of Shewanella putrefaciens and Shewanella alga on the basis of whole-cell protein profiles, ribotyping, phenotypic characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis Appl Environ Microbiol 1997 63 2189 2199 29 Wang X.H., Oon H.L., Ho G.W., Wong W.S., Lim T.M., Leung K.Y.: Internalization and cytotoxicity are important virulence mechanisms in Vibrio-fish epithelial cell interactions. Microbiology 1998, 144, 2987–3002. 9846734 10.1099/00221287-144-11-2987 Wang X.H. Oon H.L. Ho G.W. Wong W.S. Lim T.M. Leung K

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Effect of sodium butyrate on intestinal health of poultry

growing rabbits. Animals, 2019, 9, 95; doi:10.3390/ani9030095 Antongiovanni M., Buccioni A., Petacchi F., Leeson S., Minieri S., Martini A., Cecchi R. (2009). Butyric acid glycerides in the diet of broiler chickens: Effects on gut histology and carcass composition. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 6:19–25. Awaad M.H.H., Abd El-Ghany W.A., Nasef S.A., El-Halawany M.S., Mohamed F.F., Gaber A.F. (2016). Effect of Na-butyrate supplementation on electromicroscopy, virulence gene expression analysis and gut integrity of experimentally induced Salmonella enteritidis in broiler

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Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Enterocin Producing Enterococci against Pathogenic Bacteria

enterocin EJ97 production by Enterococcus faecalis EJ97 are located on a conjugative plasmid. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62, 1633-1641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.3.1633-1641.2003 PMCid:PMC150074 19. Vankerckhoven, V., Van Autgaerden, T., Vael, C., Lammens, C., Chapelle, S., Rossi, R., Jabes, D., Goossens, H. (2004). Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 42, 4473-4479. http

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