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Panan Kanchanaphum and Jerapan Krungkrai

pathology in malaria infections? Immunol Today. 1999; 20:228-33. 5. Dondorp AM, Nosten F, Yi P, Das D, Phyo AP, Tarning J, et al. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361:455-67. 6. Htut ZW. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361:1807-8. 7. Stein WD, Sanchez CP, Lanzer M. Virulence and drug resistance in malaria parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2009; 25:441-3. 8. Krungkrai J, Krungkrai S. Malaria parasite: Genomics, biochemistry and

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Valentina P. Popova, Mariya P. Sredkova, Hristina H. Hitkova, Kaloyan T. Ivanov and Vladimir G. Popov

References 1. Leclercq R. Enterococci acquire new kinds of resistance. Clin Infect Dis. I997;24(l):580-1. 2. Murray BE. The life and times of the Enterococcus. Gin Microbiol Rev. 1990;3:46-65. 3. Werner G, GoqucTM, Hammerum AM, Hope R, Hrynicwicz W, Johnson A, ct al Emergence and spread of vancomycin resistance among enterococci in Europe. Euro Survcill. 2008; 3 (47)pii 19046. 4. Willems RJ, Bonten MJ. Glyoopcptidc-resistant enterococci: deciphering virulence, resistance and cpidcmicity. Cutt

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Pawana Panomket

-701. 23. Vorachit M, Lam K, Jayanetra P, Costerton JW. Electron microscopy study of the mode of growth of Pseudomonas pseudomallei in vitro and in vivo. J Trop Med Hyg. 1995; 98:379-91. 24. Taweechaisupapong S, Kaewpa C, Arunyanart C, Kanla P, Homchumpa P. Virulence of Burkholderia pseudomallei does not correlate with biofilm formation. Microb Pathog. 2005; 39:77-85. 25. Vorachit M, Lam K, Jayanetra P, Costerton JW. Resistance of Pseudomonas pseudomallei growing as a biofilm on silastic disc to ceftazidime and cotrimoxazole. Antimicrob

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Ming Guo and Jingfeng Zhang

Transfusion Infectivity 2.1 Effects of HBV Genotype According to their entire gene sequences, differences among various HBV strains reach >8%, and to date, 10 genotypes (from A to J) have been discovered. Evidence indicates that different HBV genotypes lead to different HBV infectivities through blood transfusions. Using experiments on gorillas infected with HBV, the American group Hsia et al . [ 4 ] proved that for different genotypes, 50% chimp infectious dose (CID 50 ) of HBV differs. The C genotype spans three genome equivalents (geq, D genotype totals 78 geq

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Lingling Zu

bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet, 1984, 1(8390):1311-1315. 6 Alakkari A, Zullo A, O’Connor HJ. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases. Helicobacter, 2011, 16 (Suppl1):33-37. 7 Cover T, Peek RM. Diet, microbial virulence, and Helicobacter pylori- induced gastric cancer. Gut Microbes, 2013,4(6):482-493. 8 Krajden S, Fuksa M, Anderson J, et al . Examination of human stomach biopsies, saliva, and dental plaque for Campylobacterpylori. J Clin Microbiol, 1989, 27(6):1397-1398. 9 Zou QH, Li RQ

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Dominik Langer, Beata Czarczynska-Goslinska and Tomasz Goslinski

, glycyrrhizin and its metabolites, J. Antimicrob. Chemother ., 54, 243, 2004. 26. Kumada H.: Long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis C with glycyrrhizin [Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC)] for preventing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, Oncology , 62, 94, 2002. 27. Lacaille-Dubois M.A., Wagner H.: A review of the biological and pharmacological activities of saponins, Phytomedicine , 2, 363, 1996. 28. Long D.R. et al.: 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Inhibits Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Survival and Attenuates Virulence Gene Expression

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Ruaa SH. Nile, Mayyada F. Darweesh and Mohauman M. Al-Rufaie

REFERENCES 1. Hegazy WAH. Diclofenac inhibits virulence of Proteus mirabilis isolated from diabetic foot ulcer. Afr J Microbiol. Res. 2016;10:733-43. 2. Schaffer JN, Pearson MM. Proteus mirabilis and urinary tract infections. J Microbiol Spect. 2015;3(5). 3. Brzozowska E, Pyra A, Pawlik K, Janik M, Górska S., Urbańska N. Hydrolytic activity determination of tail tubular Protein A of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophages towards saccharide substrates. J Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):18048. 4. Brotzki CR, Mergenhagen KA,, Bulman ZP, Tsuji BT

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Sara Batoei, Mohaddese Mahboubi and Reza Yari

EZ. Distribution and evolution of virulence factors in septicemic Escherichia coli . Int J Med Microbiol 2010; 300(6):367-370. doi: 11. Arshad M, Seed PC. Urinary tract infections in the infant. Clin Perinatol 2015; 42(1):17-28. doi: 12. Saltoglu N, Karali R, Yemisen M, Ozaras R, Balkan II, Mete B, et al. Comparison of community onset healthcare associated and hospital acquired urinary infections caused by extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia

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Gulcan Sahal and Isil Seyis Bilkay

crystals [ 5 , 6 ]. These crystals are deposited directly onto the catheter surface or into microbial biofilms; leading to blockage and encrustation of catheters, retention of urine in the bladder and development of bacteriuria [ 2 , 6 ]. Previous reports showed a correlation between biofilm production and multiple drug resistance in clinical isolates [ 7 - 8 ]. Increased antibiotic resistance is thought to be related to biofilm formation. This increased resistance is related to gene transfer within biofilms [ 9 ]. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical

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Dan Wang

bacteria and fungi: (1) the physical support of surface structures (such as cell wall, mycelium, flagella, and cilia) [ 21 ] and (2) through interactions of secretion or autolysis chemicals (such as signaling molecules, extracellular polysaccharide, protein, and DNA and RNA) to complete the exchange and information transmission of genes and metabolites, change antibiotic resistance, adapt to environment pressures, and express virulence genes. Given the complexity of the interaction between bacteria and fungi, scarce information can explain the specific mechanisms, which