Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 396 items for :

Clear All
Open access

Luděk Rak, Jan Drozd and Zdeněk Flasar

Abstract

The paper focuses on the analysis of the current highly dangerous tools of destruction, used mostly by insurgents and terrorists, especially in asymmetric warfare. Vehicles usually loaded with explosives (mostly homemade explosive), driven by suicide bombers are a significant threat to troops and the civilian population, not only in high risk areas. Analysis of the available incidents of this type, and available response to an incident mentioned in this article, it becomes the basic portfolio data for the design of effective elimination or at least reduction of the destructive effect, especially on soft targets.

Open access

Michal Hrnčiar

Abstract

The current security environment is evolving towards a global complexity of unpredictable events. The risk of state and non-state actors attempting to achieve their goals through destabilization exists. In the operating environment, this implies a blurring of the boundaries between state and nonstate actors (such as insurgents, terrorists and criminals) and NATO may confront an adversary who uses traditional (conventional), irregular warfare or both (hybrid warfare). The aim of the article is to find, analyze and describe the key elements that fundamentally different irregular of traditional (conventional) and hybrid warfare.

Open access

Yun Gao, Mohammad Reza Farahani and Wei Gao

Abstract

In this article, we propose an ontology learning algorithm for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping in view of distance function learning techniques. Using the distance computation formulation, all the pairs of ontology vertices are mapped into real numbers which express the distance of their corresponding vectors. The more distance between two vertices, the smaller similarity between their corresponding concepts. The stabilities of our learning algorithm are defined and several bounds are yielded via stability assumptions. The simulation experimental conclusions show that the new proposed ontology algorithm has high efficiency and accuracy in ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping in certain engineering applications.

Open access

Tomasz Bąk

September 2002, AON, Warszawa 2002, p.51; [5] M. Piekarski “Strategia i taktyka terrorystów” (“Terrorist Strategy and Tactics”) - http://www.antyterroryzm.republika.pl/Strategia_i_taktyka_terroryst%C3%B3w.pdf [17.03.2017]; [6] https://www.state.gov/j/crt/2015/257526.htm [06.03.2017]; [7] M. Tomczak, Ewolucja metod terrorystycznych (Evolution of Terrorist Methods) - http://studiastrategiczne.amu.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/17_tomczak.pdf [17.03.2017].

Open access

Karol Gryko, Bogusław Słupczyński and Anna Kopiczko

Abstract

Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694) performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences), before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences), after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05) 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.

Open access

Dana Dinu

Abstract

The attention still enjoyed today by Aeneas’ treatise on how to withstand a siege is not merely due to its antiquity. Many of the military principles and practical instructions it conveys are still valid. In addition to these, a closer examination opens a broader insight into the Greek city of the fourth century BC than that for which the manual was originally designed, for scholars found many interesting historical, political, social, ethnographic, and linguistic aspects scattered throughout the text. The aim of this paper is firstly, to emphasize the way in which the ideas and instructions of Aeneas Tacticus are articulated in a rigorous and clear plan and, secondly, to draw attention to some of the issues which are not specific to the military, but began to be considered relevant to the overall picture of the treatise.

Open access

Elzbieta Zysk and Alina Źrobek-Różańska

Abstract

The article aims to present selected transformations of landscape that follow changes in land use designated by suburban municipalities. Currently, under the pressure of suburbanization, suburban rural municipalities are gradually being transformed into urban-style residential units. Modern and dense residential constructions shape the local landscape by introducing irreversible changes. Directing this process seems to be an important aim for local authorities, which should responsibly apply planning tools and carry out policies which minimize negative changes to the landscape and promote spatial order. In this respect, the paper presents the relationship between the spatial strategy adopted by a municipality and the transformations in the landscape for two selected municipalities: Dywity and Barczewo.

Open access

Grzegorz Lech, Wiesław Chwała, Tadeusz Ambroży and Stanisław Sterkowicz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance.

The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821).