Karina Tomaszewska, Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska and Wojciech Jóźwiak
Thermal and thermo-catalytic degradation of polyolefins as a simple and efficient method of landfill clearing
Thermal degradation of the low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) and the municipal waste plastics was investigated. The thermo-catalytic degradation of LDPE and PP was studied in the presence of the following catalysts: four different types of montmorillonite: K5, K10, K20, K30 and - for comparison - zeolites (natural - clinoptilolite, YNa+ and YH+). Thermal analyses TG-DTA-MS of polymers and polymer-catalyst mixtures were carried out in an argon flow atmosphere in isothermal and dynamic conditions. The following order was found: in lowering the reaction temperature for LDPE degradation YH+ > mK5 > mK20 = mK30 >mK10 > NZ > YNa+; for PP degradation: mK20 > mK5 = mK30 >mK10 > YH+ > NZ > YNa+. The activity tests were carried out in a stainless steel batch reactor under atmospheric pressure in a wide temperature range of up to 410°C, and using the atmosphere of argon flow. The liquid products were analysed by the GC-MS method. The hydrocarbons in the liquid products from thermal degradation of polymers were broadly distributed in the carbon fractions of C8 to C26 - for LDPE and C6 to C31 for PP.
Eddy current magnetic signature is, together with magnetization of ferromagnetic hull, mechanisms and devices on board, corrosion related and stray field sources one of the main sources of ship’s magnetic signature. Due to roll, pitch and yaw of the ship in external magnetic field, eddy currents are induced in conducting materials on board ship, mainly in conducting hull. Flow of those currents is a source of magnetic field around a ship. Principal eddy current component is related to roll movement as it depends on rate of change of external field which is the highest for roll. Induced currents have both in-phase and quadrature components. Magnitude of the eddy current magnetic field can have significant effect on total magnetic field signature after degaussing for ships such as mine sweepers and mine hunters. Paper presents calculations and simulations as well as measurements of model and physical scale model made of low magnetic steel performed in Maritime Technology Center. Contribution of eddy current magnetic field in total field in low roll frequencies has been estimated.
Alexander Schrek, Pavol Švec, Alena Brusilová and Zuzana Gábrišová
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