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Chassica Kirchhoff

Abstract

The Thun-Hohenstein album, long-known as the Thun’sche Skizzenbuch, is a bound collection of 112 drawings that visualize armoured figures at rest and in combat, as well as empty armours arrayed in pieces. The collection gathers drawings that span the period from the 1470s to around 1590. While most of the images were executed in Augsburg during the 1540s, the album’s three oldest drawings date to the late-fifteenth century. Two of these works, which form a codicological interlude between the first and second quires, find parallels in the illustrations of contemporaneous martial treatises. This article traces the pictorial lineages of these atextual images through comparative analyses of fight books produced in the German-speaking lands, and considers how the representational strategies deployed in martial treatises inflected the ways that book painters and their audiences visualized the armoured body. This exploration situates a manuscript from which one of the drawings derives, Peter Falkner’s Art of Knightly Defense, now in Vienna, within the Augsburg book painters’ workshops that would later give rise to the Thun album. Finally, this study considers how the transmission and representation of martial knowledge in late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century Augsburg contributed to the later depictions of armoured bodies that populate the album.

Open access

Archives of Control Sciences

The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

Open access

International Agrophysics

The Journal of Institute of Agrophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences

Open access

Editor-in-chief Krystyna Kujawinska Courtney

Open access

Dariusz Mikielewicz and Paweł Szymański

Abstract

The combat potential of future warships will be directly related to the use of modern electronic devices being parts of advanced systems, such as, for instance, radar systems, fire aiming systems, fire detection systems, electric drive systems, and even electronic and radio-electronic weaponry, railguns and lasers, installed on these warships. The capacity and functionality of these devices is continually increasing, at decreasing mass and dimensions, which results in higher power consumption. Heat collection becomes a growing problem in operation of these devices.

The paper presents a concept of the use of the CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) cycle for passive heat collection from precise electronic devices used on warships. It also includes the description of the experimental rig and discussion of the results of laboratory tests performed on this rig and confirmed using the mathematical model developed by the authors.

Open access

Denis Loustau, Nuria Altimir, Mireille Barbaste, Bert Gielen, Sara Marańón Jiménez, Katja Klumpp, Sune Linder, Giorgio Matteucci, Lutz Merbold, Marteen Op de Beek, Patrice Soulé, Anne Thimonier, Caroline Vincke and Peter Waldner

Abstract

The nutritional status of plant canopies in terms of nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) exerts a strong influence on the carbon cycle and energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, in order to account for the spatial and temporal variations in nutritional status of the plant species composing the canopy, we detail the methodology applied to achieve consistent time-series of leaf mass to area ratio and nutrient content of the foliage within the footprint of the Integrated Carbon Observation System Ecosystem stations. The guidelines and defi-nitions apply to most terrestrial ecosystems.

Open access

F. Seehofer and D. Hanssen

Abstract

Construction and working principle of an automatic capillary press, a smoking machine for preparing instant smoke condensate of 15 cigarettes per smoking procedure, are presented. The smoking capacity is 500 cigarettes per day. Condensate production by means of total puffs smoking, in echelons as well as by means of individual puffs is possible. The reproducibility of smoke condensate and smoke nicotine yields is 2.5% R.S.D. Compared with electrostatic precipitation the smoke yield is 90%. The yields of condensate, nicotine, phenols, water, acids, and benzopyrene are reported. Changes of the results of total puffs yields and individual puff yields as a function of initial tobacco moisture as well as different precipitation procedures are indicated.

Open access

Gergő Ráduly, Zsuzsánna Pap, Loránd Dénes, Annamária Szántó and Zoltán Pávai

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