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The Nigeria Led ECOMOG Military Intervention and Interest in the Sierra Leone Crisis: An Overview

Abstract

While Nigeria was under President Sani Abacha’s dictatorship, the democratic system was toppled in Sierra Leone by rebels but Abacha reversed the trend. The reasons for the largely unilateral and hasty decision to restore democracy in Sierra Leone by the Abacha regime remain controversial. Wide skepticism and condemnation greeted the decision to commit Nigerian troops, money and materials to a foreign operation at the expense of Nigeria’s fragile economy. The Nigeria Armed Forces consequently became the instrument for the pursuant of an aggressive foreign policy. The Economic Community of West Africa Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) hastily deployed to Sierra Leone just as it had previously done in Liberia amidst various operational and logistical problems. In terms of interests, Nigeria’s attempt to restore democracy in Sierra Leone was perceived to be contradictory both at home and abroad since Abacha’s regime itself was undemocratic and facing international isolation. The view that the Force was being used by the Abacha regime to pursue its own economic and political interest dampened the enthusiasm of regional and international organizations to provide financial and logistic support. Either way, the argument of this paper is that Nigeria’s unilateral military action in Sierra Leone was a reflection of her desire to score a quick military victory outside an Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sub regional security legal framework but it failed woefully.

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System for Electronic Archiving of Document in Republic of Kosovo: An Evaluation of Success Factors- Design-Reality Gap Analysis

Abstract

Use of Innovation of ICT in activities of the public sector, referred to as e-Government, has helped governments to improve their services to citizens, to businesses and to government units by making them more qualitative and easily accessible. The initiative of e-Government in Kosovo was identified as a priority of the government in 2008 and since then a number of projects have been implemented, amongst them the System for Electronic Archiving of Document (SEAD). Since the partial or full failure of implementation of e-government projects is very frequent phenomenon in developing countries, the identification of success and failure factors of projects is necessary in order to address them on time. In this study are assessed the level of success of implementation of SEAD and are identified the critical success and failure factors of this system through seven dimensions ITPOSMO by using the Design Reality Gap Analysis. By measuring the design-reality gap across seven dimensions, we have assessed the success of the implementation of SEAD, which scored 18.05. Results from this study indicate that if no action is taken to reduce the size of gaps, particularly the gap in dimensions “Processes” and “Staffing and Skills”, project risks falling in the category “Partial Failure”. Findings from this research will serve to reduce the risks that may affect the successful implementation of e-governance in Republic of Kosovo, and also will serve other researchers in identifying the failure and success factors of e-Government in developing countries.

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Socio-Cultural Factors as Determinant of Women’s Attitude Towards Participation in Trade Unionism in Ondo State

Abstract

This study examined the issues of socio-cultural factors as determinants of women’s attitude towards participation in trade unionism in Ondo State. The study adopted a descriptive research design of the survey type and a multi-stage sampling procedures. At stage one, purposive sampling technique was used to select five institutions out of the six government owned institutions in Ondo State. The one that was not selected was considered very young with no active labour union. Stage two involved the categorisation of staff in each institution into academic and non- academic using stratified sampling technique. Stage three involved the selection of fifty (50) respondents each from the institutions selected through random sampling technique making a total of five hundred (500) respondents as sample for the study. An instrument titled: ‘Women Participation in Trade Unionism Questionnaire (WPTUQ)’ designed by the researcher was used to collect data. The research questions were answered using descriptive statistics such as, frequency count, mean scores, percentages and standard deviations while hypotheses were tested using t-test and regression statistics as well as Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed significant relationship between socio-cultural variables such as marital factors, age related factors, economic factors and women’s participation in trade union activities. It was therefore recommended that women need to be encouraged to participate more actively in trade unionism. Also, religious institutions were advised to preach sermons in churches and mosques that would discourage gender bias. Also, women’s education should be taken as priority to enhance their active participation in trade unionism.

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Jokowi’s Political Communication in Jakarta Governor Election to Win Age-Based Voters

://search.kompas.com/fq/?q=Kampanye+Jokowi+-+Ahok+Januari+2012+-september+2012&sort=time&sortime=0&siteid=0&startdate=&end-date=&lipsus=None&sort=score, accessed on 28 October 2013) . http://search.kompas.com/fq/?q=Kampanye+Foke+-Nara+januari+2012-+September+2012&sort=time&sortime=0&siteid=0&startdate=&end-date=&lipsus=None&sort=score. accessed on 28 October 2013). http://www.anashir.com/2012/07/12/172156/10-situs-berita-terpopuler-di-indonesia, accessed on 11 January 2013).

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An Investigation of Factors that Influence the Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students of Public Universities in Ghana

.tfhe.net/resources/mastering_globalization.htm Cavell, T. A., & Woehr, D. J. (1994). Predicting introductory psychology test scores: An engaging and useful topic. Teaching of Psychology, 21, 108-110. Chickering, A. W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Daniels, H. M., & Thrall, G. I. (2008). A geographic scaling procedure for comparative measurement of performance and achievement in education. Gainesville: Florida Dayioglu, M., & Turut-Asit, S. (2007). Gender differences in academic performance in a large public university in

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Analysis of Competitive Learning at University Level in Mexico via Item Response Theory

. In F. Lord & M. Novick (Eds.), Statitsical Theories for Mental Test Scores (p. 592). Reading,MA: Addison-Wesley. Cantador, I., & Conde, J. (2010). Effects of competition in education: a case study in an elearning environment. In IADIS international conference e-Learnig (pp. 11–18). Retrieved from http://arantxa.ii.uam.es/~Cantador/doc/2010/elearning10.pdf Carpio Cañada, J., Mateo Sanguino, T. J., Merelo Guervós, J. J., & Rivas Santos, V. M. (2015). Open classroom: enhancing student achievement on artificial intelligence through an international online

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Never Let Me Down: A Case-study of Slovenian Policy Measures to Prevent Early School Leaving

of Education , 48 (1), 150–164. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12000 Geržina, S., Vranješ, P., Cek, M., Hazl, V., Mesec, P., & Švab, A. (2001). Modernisation of vocational education and training: national report, Slovenia 2000 . Ljubljana: National VET Observatory Slovenia, Centre of the Republic of Slovenia for Vocational Education and Training. Hoffman, J. L., & Lowitzki, K. E. (2005). Predicting College Success with High School Grades and Test Scores: Limitations for Minority Students. Review of Higher Education , 28 (4), 455–474. https://doi.org/10

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