Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Paulina Szmigielska, Aleksandra Snochowska, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Anna Jegier, Justyna Kiszałkiewicz, Joanna Jastrzębska, Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Paweł Cięszczyk, Aleksandra Suchanecka, Michał Wilk, Michał Brzeziański and Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota
), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The quality and quantity of isolated RNA was assessed spectrophotometrically (Eppendorf BioPhotometrTM Plus, Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany). The purity of total RNA (ratio of 16S to 18S fraction) was determined in the automated electrophoresis using the RNA Nano Chips Lab Chipplates in Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Complementary DNA (cDNA) was transcribed from 100 ng of total RNA, using a High‐Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA, USA) in a total volume of 20
terminated once athletes’ velocity drops below the predetermined velocity threshold.
Therefore, if an athlete has a single “bad repetition”, the VBT threshold informs the coach that the athlete should cease the set, whereas in reality, it is possible that the next repetition (or few repetitions) could still be performed above the threshold. This could be problematic as training volume would be incorrectly and inadvertently reduced beyond what is desired. This type of a real-life scenario introduces the idea that although the force-velocity relationship is linear, the
Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jakub Chycki, Marek Sawczuk and Wojciech Smółka
athletes, the frequency of the SOD2 Val/Val genotype was shown to be significantly lower in power/strength athletes compared to controls or athletes involved in low-intensity sports. Furthermore, the SOD2 16Val allele was significantly associated with increased activity of creatine kinase and the creatinine level in athletes ( Ahmetov et al., 2014 ).
5) Markers that are regulators of energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis
Mitochondria are essential to all higher organisms for sustaining life, and are extremely important in energy metabolism, providing 36
Staff in NHS Trusts: Final Report. Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
Csoboth, C. (2006). A magyar nők életminősége /Lifestyle of Hungarian woman/. In M. Kopp, M.E. Kovács (Eds.), A magyar népesség életminősége az ezredfordulón /The qualityoflife in the Hungarian population in the millennium/ (pp. 106-115). Budapest: Semmelweis Kiadó.
Dewe, P.J. (1987). Identifying the causes of nurses’ stress: a survey of New Zealand nurses. Work Stress , 1: 15–24.
Gémes, K. (2006). Sport és életminőség /Sport and qualityof
; Duda and Nicholls, 1992 ; Tanaka and Murayama, 2014 ). Previous studies have also pointed to interdependence between adolescents’ satisfaction with their life and health behavior patterns ( Desousa et al., 2008 ; Sun and Shek, 2010 ; Stubbe et al., 2007 ). However, to date, these findings have not been pulled together in a process model centered on the interplay between motivation-related characteristics, qualityof engagement in achievement activities, well-being and health related behaviors in teenagers. Consequently the main objective of this paper was to test
Bartosz Trabka, Igor Z. Zubrzycki, Zbigniew Ossowski, Olgierd Bojke, Anna Clarke, Magdalena Wiacek and Ewelina Latosik
, Barofsky I. Obesity and health-related qualityoflife. Obes Rev, 2001; 2(3): 173-182
Gebhardt SE, Thomas RG, United States. Agricultural Research Service. Nutritive value of foods (Rev. October 2002. ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.; 2002
Goran M, Fields DA, Hunter GR, Herd SL, Weinsier RL. Total body fat does not influence maximal aerobic capacity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 2000; 24(7): 841-848
Gorodeski GI. Update on cardiovascular disease in post
Dariusz Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Żebrowska, Sebastian Rutkowski, Anna Rutkowska, Joanna Warzecha, Bettina Ziaja, Aleksandra Pałka, Barbara Czyżewska, Damian Czyżewski and Dariusz Ziora
in the 6MWT, which was conducted according to Polish guidelines ( Przybyłowski et al., 2015 ).
To estimate the qualityoflife, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was applied. This survey belongs to a group of tools used to estimate the general qualityoflife and is commonly used in many health service institutions (Ware at al., 2004). The SF-36 consists of 36 questions that describe the state of health. The SF-36 allows for the description of the physical qualityoflife as the Physical Cumulative Score (PCS ), which consists of 4 domains: Physical
George Karlis, Aida Stratas, Marianna Locke, François Gravelle and Genie Arora
Lagacé, M., Charmarkeh, H., & Grandena, F. (2012). Cultural perceptions of aging: The Perspective of Somali Canadians in Ottawa. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 27 (4), 409-424.
Lee, J.H., Lee, J.H., & Park, S.H. (2014). Leisure activity participation as predictor ofqualityoflife in Korean urban-dwelling elderly. Occupational Therapy International, 21 (3), 124-132.
Luhtanen, E. (2009). Including Immigrant and Refugee Seniors in Public Policy. Calgary: The City of Calgary. Retrieved from https
Ehsani, M. (2010). The Relationship of Management Style and Job Satisfaction among PE Teachers, Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research , 48(1), 71-83. DOI: 10.2478/v10141-010-0008-y
Gold, R.R., Petrella, J., Angel, J., Ennis, L.S., & Woolley, T.W. (2012). The qualitiesof physical education teachers based upon students’ perception of physical appearance, Journal of Instructional Psychology , 39(2), 92-104.
Hakanen, J.J., Bakker, A.B., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers, Journal of School Psychology , 43, 495
Lídia Aguiar Bezerra, Helton Fabrício de Melo, Ana Paula Garay, Victor Machado Reis, Felipe José Aidar, Ana Rita Bodas, Nuno Domingos Garrido and Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira
Physiol, 1996; 105: 69-76
Oken BS, Zajdel D, Kishiyama S, Flegal K, Dehen C, Haas M, Kraemer DF, Lawrence J, Leyva J.
Randomized, controlled, six-month trial of yoga in healthy seniors: effects on cognition and qualityoflife. Altern Ther Health Med, 2006; 12(1): 40-47
Pelkonen M, Notkola I, Lakka T, Tukiainen HO, Kivinen P, Nissinen A. Delaying Decline in Pulmonary Function with Physical Activity: a 25-year follow-up. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2003; 168: 464-499
Ray US, Sinha B. Aerobic Capacity