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Kristín Loftsdóttir

.1215/08992363-12-2-291. Daukšas, D 2013, ‘Lithuanians in Norway: between ‘here’ and ‘there’’, Urbanities, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 51-68. Dzenovska, D 2010, ‘Public reason and the limits of liberal antiracism in Latvia’, Ethnos, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 496-525, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00141844.2010.535125. Dzenovska, D 2013, ‘Historical agency and the coloniality of power in postsocialist Europe’, Anthropological Theory, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 394-416, DOI: 10.1177/1463499613502185. ECRI-The European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance, 2007

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Jurga Motiejūnaitė, Toni Berglund, Paweł Czarnota, Dmitry Himelbrant, Filip Högnabba, Liudmila A. Konoreva, Eugeny S. Korchikov, Dariusz Kubiak, Martin Kukwa, Ekaterina Kuznetsova, Ede Leppik, Piret Lõhmus, Ingrida Prigodina Lukošienė, Pykälä Juha, Darius Stončius, Irina Stepanchikova, Ave Suija, Arne Thell, Andrei Tsurykau and Martin Westberg

References Adamonyte G., Motiejünaite J. (eds.), 2011: XVIII Symposium of the Baltic Mycologists and Li- chenologists, Nordic Lichen Society Meeting, Dubingiai, Lithuania, 19-23 September 2011. Programme and Abstracts. - Vilnius. Ahlner S., 1948: Utbredningstyper bland nordiska barrträdslavar. - Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 22: 1-257. Arup U., 2009: The Caloplaca holocarpa group in the Nordic countries, except Iceland. - Lichenol- ogist, 41: 111-130. Asvejos regioninis parkas: http

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Judita Koreivienė, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Ksenija Savadova, Jūratė Karosienė and Irma Vitonytė

. Drukšiai) pri različnom mineral’nom pitanii i temperature v model’nyx opytax. − Trudy Akademii Nauk Litovskoj SSR, B, 1(101): 19−25. K arosienė J., K oreivienė J., S avadova K., K asperovičienė J., 2012: Effect of temperature and light on germination of Gonyostomum semen cysts. Algae in human environment. 31 st International conference of Polish Phycological Society (Olsztyn, Poland, May 17−20): 45–45. – Olsztyn. K arosienė J., K asperovičienė J., K oreivienė J., V itonytė I., 2014: Assessment of the vulnerability of Lithuanian lakes to expansion

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Jindřich Čeladín

-Century Lithuanian Historicism . Boulder: Columbia University Press, New York, 2000. MERKYS 1994a : MERKYS, Vytautas. Knygnešių laikai 1864–1904. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 1994. MERKYS 1994b : MERKYS, Vytautas. Draudžiamosios lietuviškos spaudos kelias 1864–1904 . Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 1994. MISIUS – KALUŠKEVIČIUS 2006 : MISIUS, Kazys – KALUŠKEVIČIUS, Benjaminas. Didysis knygnešys Jurgis Bielinis . Vilnius: Diemedžio ledykla, 2006.

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Tomasz Jeż

of the City of Vilnius… Holds Annual Performances for the Advent Mass of Rorate Coeli ]. Warszawa: Pax. Berglund, L. (2004). The Concerto Principle in Kaspar Förster’s Psalm Compositions: Confitebor tibi Domine in C. In: Musica Baltica. Im Umkreis des Wandels – von den cori spezzati zum konzertierenden Stil (p. 352–368). Gdańsk: Akademia Muzyczna. Betlej, A. (2011). Jesuit Architecture in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1564–1772. In: M.I. Álvaro (Ed.), La Arquitectura Jesuítica (pp. 277–303). Saragossa: Actas. Byczkowska-Sztaba, J. (2004

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Ligita Gaspareniene

). Country comparison. CIA Factbook. Retrieved Sept. 14, 2014, from http://www.indexmundi.com/factbook/compare/estonia.lithuania/economy Invest Lithuania. (2014). Foreign direct investment in Lithuania: tendencies and prospectss. ISSUU. Retrieved Sept. 09, 2014, from http://issuu.com/invest_lithuania/docs/tiesiogines-uzsienioinvesticijos-l Ivestors’ Forum Tax Group. (2011). Favourable and clear Lithuanian tax system for everybody. Investors’ Forum. Retrieved Sept. 12, 2014, from http

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Jurga Motiejūnaitė

REFERENCES A lstrup V., 1993: Notes on some lichenicolous fungi from Denmark. – Graphis Scripta, 5(1): 60–64. A ndersson L., K riukelis R., Č iuplys R. (eds), 2002: Inventory of woodland key habitats. Methodology. Forest Department, Ministry of Environment, Lithuania. County Forestry Board, Östra Götaland, Sweden. – Vilnius–Linköping. B alevičius K. (ed.), 1984: Čepkelių rezervatas. – Vilnius. B aškytė R., B ezaras V., K avaliauskas P., K limavičius A., R aščius G., 2006: Protected areas in Lithuania. – Kaunas. B rackel W

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Valery Komisarov, Linda Kauškale and Natalija Lepkova

from CBRE website: http://www.cbre.lv/lv_en/research Colliers International. (2015). Real Estate Market Overview. Annual Report. Latvia. Lithuania. Estonia. Retrieved from http://www.colliers.com/lv-lv/latvia/insights/research-the-market Colliers International. (2016). Real Estate Market Overview. Annual Review. Latvia. Lithuania. Estonia. Retrieved from http://www.colliers.com/-/media/files/emea/latvia/research/2016/real_estate_market_overview_2016_for_web_final.pdf Brett, L. D., & Schmitz, A. (2005). Real estate

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Vytautas Jokubauskas

Abstract

In the 21st century - as in the first half of the 20th century - Lithuania has faced threats posed to its national security and statehood. Owing to its limited resources, the country is not essentially able to establish large regular forces; therefore, it is permanently developing its territorial defence forces. In the interwar period, their nucleus was formed by the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union, while in the 21st century it is by the National Defence Volunteer Forces. While modelling new concepts of territorial defence, it is inevitable to consider not only the practices of other countries and their military theories but also Lithuania’s national experience. Of course, this is the experience of 1990-2004, but in the first part of the 20th century the idea of territorial defence was also put into practice and cultivated at the theoretical level. Another aspect is that territorial defence in practice is inextricably entwined with the tactics of guerrilla warfare and their application. Lithuania’s historical experience and analysis of its territorial defence and partisan war is not only knowledge for its own sake. It may have tangible practical value since Lithuania considered, premeditated and applied these notions in practice repeatedly in the first half of the 20th century. Furthermore, the geographical location of the country and distribution of eventual sources of conflict in comparison with the interwar period have virtually not changed. In the interwar period, East Prussia, part of Germany and separated by the Polish Corridor, had been a semi-exclave up until September 1939. Similarly, it is only by sea and air that this territory is accessible at present, though now a subject of the Russian Federation as the Kaliningrad region. Due to geopolitical transformations, after World War II the ‘enemy from the East’ had moved geographically to Western Lithuania. There exists a similar situation on the south-eastern border of Lithuania, where a none-too-friendly interwar Poland changed to a Belarus governed by Alexander Lukashenko. Lithuania’s northern border with Latvia, also a NATO member at present, remains unchanged and comparatively safe; in the interwar period, only attempts were made to discuss the idea of having mutual defence although Latvia had planned to provide some support for the Lithuanian forces in the case of a Wehrmacht attack from East Prussia to the East. So it is expedient to elaborate on what attention the Lithuanian Armed Forces in the interwar period paid to the history of war, what kind of experience of the 20th century territorial defence and partisan resistance they gained, and how this may be of value to defence experts in the 21st century.

Open access

Tomas Janeliūnas

Abstract

The goal of this article is to discuss and evaluate the importance of Lithuania’s OSCE Chairmanship in 2011, the achieving of political objectives and the results of the Chairmanship for Lithuanian national interests, foreign and security policy. The article raises questions about what motivates national states to seek a chairmanship of the OSCE, how agendas of the Chairmanship are formulated, and what obligations have to be assumed in chairing the OSCE. The article argues that Lithuania’s motivation for the OSCE Chairmanship has evolved from early efforts to enhance national interests (based on political objectives) to the obligation to be efficient in fulfilling the formal functions of the OSCE ( the functional/technocratic goals). The research found that despite the high activity and diplomatic efforts, the final result of Lithuania’s Chairmanship was disappointing to some extent - only part of Lithuania’s proposals with a priority mark were eventually adopted by the OSCE Ministerial Council in Vilnius